Beer production

Beer production

  • The process of beer production is known as brewing.
  • Word brewing is derived from “Bieber” its means to drink.
  • Basically beer is produced from all grains but at the industry, level produced only from barley.

Types of barley beer

  • Top fermented beer (yeast at the top)
  • Bottom fermented beer (yeast at the bottom)

Bottom fermented beer

  • Also known as lager (leger mean to store), during this process clarification and maturation take place.
  • Origin Europe/USA.
  • The yeast used is Saccharomyces uvarum.
  • Types of bottom fermented beer
  • Pilsner

  1. The old name of Chiko Sakvalia.
  2. Pale in color
  • Medium hop

  1. Alcoholic contents are 3-8%
  2. Leger period 2-3 months (due to development reduced to 2-3 weeks)
  3. Soft water (calcium, magnesium ions)
  • Manish

  1. Dark in color
  2. Slight hop
  • Sweater in taste

  1. Alcoholic contents 2-5%
  2. Water (high in carbonates but low in other ions
  • Weiss

  1. Made from wheat
  2. Origin is the USA

Hop (plants fruiting body, give a bitter taste to beer, acid-like taste)

Top fermented beer

  • Ale

  1. Pale in color
  2. High hop
  3. Alcoholic contents 4-5%
  • Porter

  1. Dark pink color
  2. Have strong foaming
  3. Less hop than ale
  4. Sweater in taste
  5. Alcoholic contents 5%
  • Stout

  1. Highly hoped
  2. Bitter in taste
  3. Alcoholic contents 5-6.5%

The raw material for beer production

  1. Barley malt
  2. Adjuvants
  3. Hops
  4. Tannin (help in precipitation of protein)
  5. Water
  6. Yeast

Beer production

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Process of beer production

  • Malting
  • Cleaning and milling
  • Mashing
  • Mash operation
  • Wort boiling
  • Fermentation
  • Laggering
  • Packaging

1. Malting

  • Purpose of malting is to develop amylases and proteases in grain
  • These enzymes are produced in germinating barley to enable it to break carbs and proteins present in grain
  • To nourish germinating seed before entering to photosynthesis process for energy production
  • As soon as enzymes are formed seedling/young seed can have utilized energy present in seed and development is halted using the process of drying but enzyme are not inactivated
  • During malting process grain, foreign seed, sand or any metal present are removed
  • Then these barely added to water at 10-15 degrees.
  • Grains absorb water and increase the size about 4%.
  • The respiration of embryo start and germination occur
  • This germination is halted by warm air and at this step α-amylase and β-amylase are produced.

2. Cleaning and milling

  • Germinating barley is transferred to the brewing tower.
  • At the top of this malt added where its cleaning is done.
  • Fermentation will occur at the bottom
  • Any dust, metal or impurity will be separated

3. Mashing

  • A central part of beer production
  • It determines the type of wort present also determine the type of beer
  • 2 parts of grains (starch 55%, proteins 10-12%) are break during the mashing process
  • The starch breakdown into α & β-amylase
  • Protein breakdown done with the help of protease enzyme, peptones and polypeptides are converted into amino acids

4. Mashing operation

  • Decoction: mash is transferred to a kettle and mash is boiled called decoction process
  • Infusion: in this process mash is never boiled rather than temperature gradually raise, lower than its boiling temperature.
  • Double mash method: in this method starch boiled and added in the mash.
  • Mash separation
  • At the end of the mash, husk or other insoluble material is removed from wort in a two-step
  • Wort is separated from solid
  • Solids are separated from only extractable material with the help of hot water.

5. Wort boiling

  • Wort is boiled from 1 and a half hour in kettle mainly
  • To concentrate, wort 5-8%
  • Sterilized, wort microbial load is reduced in a fermenter
  • Extraction of soluble material help in precipitation of protein and will give characteristic, color, and taste
  • Inactivate any type of enzyme-like amylase
  • Precipitate protein and remove that precipitation.
  • Develop color in beer
  • Remove any volatile compound present

6. Fermentation

  • Wort is cooled down and microorganism (yeast) is added at a rate of 7.15×106/ml
  • The fermentation process takes place in 3-4 days

7. Laggering process

  • At the end of fermentation, the beer is known as green beer which is harsh, bitter and contains alcohol as well as aldehydes.

8. Packaging

  • The packaging is done in bottles, cans, and barrels



Beer production

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