- The process of beer production is known as brewing.
- Word brewing is derived from “Bieber” its means to drink.
- Basically beer is produced from all grains but at the industry, level produced only from barley.
Types of barley beer
- Top fermented beer (yeast at the top)
- Bottom fermented beer (yeast at the bottom)
Bottom fermented beer
- Also known as lager (leger mean to store), during this process clarification and maturation take place.
- Origin Europe/USA.
- The yeast used is Saccharomyces uvarum.
- Types of bottom fermented beer
- The old name of Chiko Sakvalia.
- Pale in color
- Alcoholic contents are 3-8%
- Leger period 2-3 months (due to development reduced to 2-3 weeks)
- Soft water (calcium, magnesium ions)
- Dark in color
- Slight hop
Sweater in taste
- Alcoholic contents 2-5%
- Water (high in carbonates but low in other ions
- Made from wheat
- Origin is the USA
Hop (plants fruiting body, give a bitter taste to beer, acid-like taste)
Top fermented beer
- Pale in color
- High hop
- Alcoholic contents 4-5%
- Dark pink color
- Have strong foaming
- Less hop than ale
- Sweater in taste
- Alcoholic contents 5%
- Highly hoped
- Bitter in taste
- Alcoholic contents 5-6.5%
The raw material for beer production
- Barley malt
- Tannin (help in precipitation of protein)
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Process of beer production
- Cleaning and milling
- Mash operation
- Wort boiling
- Purpose of malting is to develop amylases and proteases in grain
- These enzymes are produced in germinating barley to enable it to break carbs and proteins present in grain
- To nourish germinating seed before entering to photosynthesis process for energy production
- As soon as enzymes are formed seedling/young seed can have utilized energy present in seed and development is halted using the process of drying but enzyme are not inactivated
- During malting process grain, foreign seed, sand or any metal present are removed
- Then these barely added to water at 10-15 degrees.
- Grains absorb water and increase the size about 4%.
- The respiration of embryo start and germination occur
- This germination is halted by warm air and at this step α-amylase and β-amylase are produced.
2. Cleaning and milling
- Germinating barley is transferred to the brewing tower.
- At the top of this malt added where its cleaning is done.
- Fermentation will occur at the bottom
- Any dust, metal or impurity will be separated
- A central part of beer production
- It determines the type of wort present also determine the type of beer
- 2 parts of grains (starch 55%, proteins 10-12%) are break during the mashing process
- The starch breakdown into α & β-amylase
- Protein breakdown done with the help of protease enzyme, peptones and polypeptides are converted into amino acids
4. Mashing operation
- Decoction: mash is transferred to a kettle and mash is boiled called decoction process
- Infusion: in this process mash is never boiled rather than temperature gradually raise, lower than its boiling temperature.
- Double mash method: in this method starch boiled and added in the mash.
- Mash separation
- At the end of the mash, husk or other insoluble material is removed from wort in a two-step
- Wort is separated from solid
- Solids are separated from only extractable material with the help of hot water.
5. Wort boiling
- Wort is boiled from 1 and a half hour in kettle mainly
- To concentrate, wort 5-8%
- Sterilized, wort microbial load is reduced in a fermenter
- Extraction of soluble material help in precipitation of protein and will give characteristic, color, and taste
- Inactivate any type of enzyme-like amylase
- Precipitate protein and remove that precipitation.
- Develop color in beer
- Remove any volatile compound present
- Wort is cooled down and microorganism (yeast) is added at a rate of 7.15×106/ml
- The fermentation process takes place in 3-4 days
7. Laggering process
- At the end of fermentation, the beer is known as green beer which is harsh, bitter and contains alcohol as well as aldehydes.
- The packaging is done in bottles, cans, and barrels