Virology VIVA Question and Answer with mnemonics

Virology VIVA Question and Answer
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1) What is the genome present inside the virus?

  • Either DNA or RNA but not both.

2) What is the genome present in Coronavirus?

  • RNA

3) Can we observe virus in general laboratory using a light microscope?

  • No, they are too small whose size ranges from 20-250 nm in size. To see the virus, we need an electron microscope.

4) What is the protective coat like structure present in the virus called?

  • Capsid

5) What is capsid made of? 

  • Capsomeres
  • They are the smaller subunit of protein.

6) What is capsomere made of?

  • Protomers. It’s the polypeptide chain.

7) What are the different shapes of viruses ?

  • Spherical
  • Oval
  • Filamentous
  • Pleomorphic

8) Antibiotics should be used against bacteria or viruses?

  • Bacteria only.

Read Also: Mycology VIVA Question and Answer

9) What are bacteriophage?

  • The virus that infects bacteria are known as bacteriophage or phage.

10) What is viremia?

  • The presence of virus in blood is known as viraemia.

11) What is virion?

  • It is a complete virus particle that is infectious.

12) What are pseudovirions ?

  • Pseudovirions are the viruses which enclose host cell nucleic acid instead of viral nucleic acid.

13) What are viroids?

  • Viroids are protein-free fragments of single-stranded, circular RNA that cause disease in plants.

14) What is viropexis?

  • The receptor-bound virus is taken inside the cell through the process of endocytosis which is known as viropexis.

15) What are prions?

  • Prions are the proteinaceous infectious particles which can transmit a disease.

16) What is the cytopathic effect?

  • When the cell is infected by virus, visible change occurs in the appearance of target cells which is known as cytopathic effect.

17) Can we grow viruses in artificial media?

  • No.
  • Viruses are not capable of independent growth in artificial media.
  • They can grow only in cells of animals or plants or in micro-organisms.

18) What is the difference between the lytic cycle and the lysogenic cycle?

  • Lytic cycle: Lysis of the host cell, releasing the new phages to infect other host cells.
  • Lysogenic cycle: Incorporation of the viral DNA into the host DNA, no lysis of the cell.

19) Example of a single-stranded DNA virus.

  • Parvovirus    @Mnemonics: PARVati is single DoN.

20) Example of double-stranded RNA virus. 

  • Reovirus  @Mnemonics: REad RNA double time.

21) What are the difference between positive-strand (positive sense) and negative-strand (negative sense).

  • Depending on the method of mRNA transcription, single-stranded RNA viruses are classified as + and strand.
  • + strand (sense ) RNA virus : Viral RNA itself acts as the mRNA and is translated directly into viral proteins in host cell cytoplasm.
  • – strand (sense ) RNA virus : Need to be converted first into + sense RNA then only translation occurs.

22) Outline the process of virus replication?

  • Attachment ( or adsorption )
  • Penetration ( or uptake )
  • Uncoating
  • Biosynthesis
  • Assembly
  • Release

23) Give examples of DNA virus:

  • Poxvirus
  • Herpes virus
  • Hepadna virus
  • Parvovirus
  • Adenovirus
  • Papovavirus  @Mnemonics: PARVati HelPed HER  PAPa ADding fOX who was DoN ( DNA) .

24) Give examples of an RNA virus: 

  • Retrovirus
  • Coronavirus
  • Toga virus
  • Picornavirus
  • Calci virus
  • Orthomyxo virus
  • Paramyxo virus
  • Rhabdo virus
  • Arenavirus
  • Bunyavirus
  • Reovirus  @Mnemonics: BaNYA ARE REading RNA OR CALL TO CORONA PICORNA

25) Give examples of some antiviral drugs

  • Acyclovir
  • Valacyclovir
  • Penciclovir
  • Ganciclovir
  • Azidothymidine
  • Ribavirin   @Mnemonics: AuNTI VIRA saw RIAZ‘s “PENGANg on A CYCle  taking Drugs   

26) Give examples of viruses having icosahedral shape?

  • Poliovirus
  • Rhinovirus
  • HIV
  • Herpes virus
  • Adenovirus        @ Mnemonics: HI ISA  ADd  HER RHINo Post

27) Give example of helical viruses.

  • Influenza virus
  • Rabies virus
  • Tobacco mosaic virus

28) Example of a complex virus:

  • Poxvirus

29 ) Example of plant virus:

  • Tobacco Mosaic Virus
  • Cauliflower Mosaic Virus
  • Alfalfa Mosaic Virus

30) Example of a bacterial virus:

  • λ phage
  • T4 phage

31) Example of an insect virus:

  • Arbo virus
  • Flavi virus

32) Example of animal and human virus:

  • HIV
  • Rabies virus
  • Pox virus
  • Influenza virus
  • Herpes virus

Read Also: VIVA Alert: Basic Microbiology with mnemonics

33) Define the term:

  • Dermatotropic virus: Virus that affects the skin and skin tissue.  Examples: Poxvirus, Measles virus
  • Viscerotropic virus: Virus that affects visceral organ. Examples: Hepatitis B virus, HIV, Cytomegalovirus, Polyomavirus
  • Neurotropic virus: Virus that affects nerve and nervous tissue. Examples: Poliovirus, Rabies virus, Dengue virus, Japanese Encephalitis virus
  • Enteric virus: Viruses that affect the tissue of intestine . Examples: Rotavirus and Picornavirus
  • Respiratory virus: Viruses that affect the tissue of the respiratory tract. Examples: Influenza virus, Parainfluenza virus, Respiratory syncytial virus, Rhinovirus

34) Intracytoplasmic Inclusion bodies produced in Viral infection:

  • Negri bodies: Rabies virus
  • Molluscum bodies: Molluscum contagiosum virus
  • Guarnieri bodies: Vaccinia virus
  • Bollinger bodies: Fowlpox virus
  • Perinuclear cytoplasmic acidophilic bodies: Reovirus

35) Intranuclear Inclusion bodies produced in Viral infection :

  • Owl eye inclusion bodies: Cytomegalovirus
  • Cowdry type A inclusion bodies: Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and measles virus
  • Intranuclear basophilic: Adenovirus
  • Acidophilic inclusion bodies: Papova virus

References and Sources

  • Parija SC (2016), Textbook of Microbiology and Immunology, 3rd edition, Elsevier India.
  • Pelczar MJ, Chan ECS, Krieng NR (1993), Microbiology, 5th edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publication.
  • Mandal PK (2016), A Textbook of Microbiology for Nursing, 2nd edition, Vidyarthi Pustak Bhandar.
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