Terminology used in Basic Microbiology

Terminology used in Basic Microbiology

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Last Updated on December 28, 2019 by Sagar Aryal

Terminology used in Basic Microbiology

Terminology used in Basic Microbiology

  1. Aerobe = organisms that grow in the presence of atmospheric oxygen
  2. Anaerobe = grows in absence of free oxygen
  3. aerotolerant anaerobes = microbes that grow equally well whether or not oxygen is present
  4. facultative anaerobes = microbes that don’t require oxygen for growth but do grow better in its presence
  5. microaerophile= requires a low level of oxygen for growth around 2 to 10% but is damaged by normal atmospheric oxygen level
  6. monotrichous = having a single flagellum
  7. amphitrichous = having single flagellum at each end
  8. lophotrichous = cluster of flagella at one or both ends
  9. peritrichous = flagella all over the surface
  10. attenuation = reduced virulence but can provoke the immune system
  11. pathogen = any virus, bacteria or other agents that cause disease
  12. pathogenicity = ability to cause disease
  13. virulence = degree or intensity of pathogenicity of an organism
  14. disinfection = killing, inhibition or removal of microorganisms that may cause disease. it usually refers to the treatment of inanimate objects
  15. sterilization = process by which all living cells, viable spores, viruses, and viroids are either destroyed or removed from an object or habitat
  16. sanitization = reduction of the microbial population on an inanimate object to levels judged safe by public health standards
  17. bacteremia= presence of viable bacteria in the blood
  18. septicemia = severe condition of bacteremia which includes rapid multiplication of bacteria and toxins in the blood
  19. viremia = presence of the virus in the blood
  20. pyrogenic = inducing fever
  21. antipyretic = which reduces temperature, given in case of fever
  22. hemolysis = disruption of red blood cells and release of their haemoglobin
  23. α-hemolysis = partial hemolysis, the greenish zone of incomplete hemolysis forms around the colony
  24. β-hemolysis = clear zone of complete hemolysis
  25. γ-hemolysis = no hemolysis
  26. antibiotic = substance of microbial origin or its derivative that kills susceptible microorganism or inhibits their growth
  27. antibody = also known as immunoglobin, a glycoprotein produced in response to the antigen
  28. antigen = substance, when introduced into the body, stimulates the production of antibodies
  29. bacteriostatic = inhibiting the growth of bacteria without killing them
  30. bactericide = an agent that kills bacteria

References

  1. Prescott.ML (2005), “Microbiology”, sixth edition, Mc-Graw Hill publication, page numbers: G1-G30
  2. Pelczar. MJ (2017), “Microbiology”, fifth edition, Mc-Graw Hill Education.

Terminology used in Basic Microbiology

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