Poliovirus and Polio Vaccines

Poliovirus and Polio Vaccines

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Last edited and updated on: by Sagar Aryal

Poliovirus

It is an infectious disease caused by poliovirus which affects the spinal cord and brain stem, it leads to paralysis and even leads to death.

  • Poliovirus is the causative agent of poliomyelitis.
  • Children under 5 years of age are more susceptible to this disease.
  • Reservoir Human.
  • Spread through feces.
  • Contaminated food and water.
  • So, it spread in the communities with poor infrastructure.
  • Poor sanitation.
  • Crowded living conditions.
  • Young children are particularly at risk of infection.

History and epidemiology

  • Poliovirus was first described by MICHAEL UNDERWOOD in 1789.
  • The first outbreak described in the U.S in 1843.
  • 21000 paralytic cases were reported in the U.S in 1952.
  • Polioviruses are distributed globally before the availability of immunization, almost 100% of the population in developing countries before the age of 5.
  • The availability of immunization and the poliovirus eradication campaign has eradicated poliovirus in most regions of the world except in the Indian subcontinent and Africa.
  • In 1908 transmission of polio to a monkey by Landsteiner was confirmed. The virus was grown on tissue culture in 1949.
  • Three types of poliovirus were isolated and identified in 1951.
  • Trials of Salk vaccine: The first large scale trial of Salk was performed in 1954. The use of Sabin in 1958 first general use of Sabin was done.
  • As a result of the massive global vaccination campaign over the past 20 years, polio exists only in a few countries in Africa and Asia. In the Philippines, the last case was reported in 1993 and in 2000 the Philippines was certified as a polio-free country.

Poliovirus and Polio Vaccines

Image Source: Wikipedia and JAMA Forum

Types of polio vaccine

Inactivated Polio Vaccine

  • Synonyms for IPV vaccine
  • e-IPV
  • ep-IPV
  • Salk vaccine
  • IPV is a trivalent (strains 1,2,3) vaccine.

Salk Polio Vaccine

– Jonas firstly developed the Salk vaccine

1) Formaldehyde-fixed

2) Non-reversion (this inactivated polio vaccine cannot revert back, np side effect and safe to use).

3) types of poliovirus grown in monkey kidney tissue culture.

Procedure for preparation

  • Standard virulent strains used.
  • 3 types of polio vaccines grown separately in MKTC.
  • Adequate titer filtered to remove debris and clumps.
  • Inactivated with formalin at 37 degrees for 12-15 days.
  • Stringent tests to ensure complete inactivation
  • Issued for use.

History

  • In 1954 the whole USA was vaccinated against polio and 80-90% population was protected.
  • In 1955 100 cases of poliomyelitis were reported due to the insufficiently inactivated vaccine.

Merits

  • IPV produces antibodies in the blood to all three types of poliovirus.
  • As IPV is not a live vaccine, it carries no risk of VAPP.
  • IPV triggers an excellent protective immune response in most people. • Shipping and transport are easy.

Demerits

  • IPV is over 5 times more expensive than OPV
  • A booster regime is required.
  • Do not stimulate local and mucosal immunity
  • Administering the vaccine requires trained workers, as well as sterile injection, equipment, and procedure.

Oral Polio Vaccine

  • Trivalent oral polio vaccine.
  • A synonym is the Sabin vaccine.
  • Developed by Albert Sabin in 1961.
  • It is a live attenuated virus vaccine.
  • Oral administration of vaccine yields a local gastrointestinal infection.
  • A major caution with TOPV is that it is a live vaccine and must never be injected.

Preparation

  • Attenuated by a passage in the foreign host (MKC)
  • Selection to grow in new in host makes viruses.
  • Less sited to the original host.
  • Stabilizers such as sucrose or trehalose or arginine hydrochloride may be added to retain the antigenicity.
  • Inactivation is carried out by adding formalin at 0.025% concentration.
  • Incubation at 37centigrade up to 48 hours and then at 23 centigrade up to 12 days.
  • Test for free formaldehyde content after 12 hours consistent inactivation of the virus is monitored and verified.

Advantages

  • Oral polio vaccines are easily administered, with no need for highly trained.
  • Induce both humoral and systemic immunity.
  • Antibodies quickly produce as 1 or 2 doses of oral vaccine can give 90-100% results.

Disadvantages

  • Instability at high temperature.
  • Very small residual neurovirulence in OPV.
  • Frequent vaccine failure even with fully potent.

Storage of polio vaccine (OPV and IPV)

  • OPV is a heat sensitive vaccine.
  •  Stored at -20 degrees.
  • Having shelf life…
  • 2 years at -20 degree
  • 6 months at 2-8 degree
  • 1-3 days at room temp.

References

Sources

  • 16% – https://www.slideshare.net/Muhammadiqbal583/polio-vaccine-85407875
  • 6% – https://judoctor2011.files.wordpress.com/2014/02/lecture-3.pdf
  • 3% – https://www.slideshare.net/leehimangsu13/poliomyelitis-53216812
  • 3% – https://quizlet.com/85252674/mc_f2-flash-cards/
  • 3% – http://polioeradication.org/polio-today/polio-prevention/the-vaccines/ipv/
  • 2% – https://www.medicinenet.com/polio_facts/article.htm
  • 2% – http://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2008/0193478.html
  • 1% – https://www.vaccines.gov/basics/types
  • 1% – https://www.smartparenting.com.ph/health/your-kids-health/polio-outbreak-philippines-a00228-20190922-lfrm
  • 1% – https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/poliomyelitis
  • 1% – https://medlineplus.gov/polioandpostpoliosyndrome.html
  • 1% – http://www.allindianpatents.com/patents/231047-a-process-for-the-preparation-of-polio-vaccine
  • <1% – http://dictionary.sensagent.com/Polio%20vaccine/en-en/

Poliovirus and Polio Vaccines

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