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It is an infectious disease caused by poliovirus which affects the spinal cord and brain stem, it leads to paralysis and even leads to death.
- Poliovirus is the causative agent of poliomyelitis.
- Children under 5 years of age are more susceptible to this disease.
- Reservoir Human.
- Spread through feces.
- Contaminated food and water.
- So, it spread in the communities with poor infrastructure.
- Poor sanitation.
- Crowded living conditions.
- Young children are particularly at risk of infection.
History and epidemiology
- Poliovirus was first described by MICHAEL UNDERWOOD in 1789.
- The first outbreak described in the U.S in 1843.
- 21000 paralytic cases were reported in the U.S in 1952.
- Polioviruses are distributed globally before the availability of immunization, almost 100% of the population in developing countries before the age of 5.
- The availability of immunization and the poliovirus eradication campaign has eradicated poliovirus in most regions of the world except in the Indian subcontinent and Africa.
- In 1908 transmission of polio to a monkey by Landsteiner was confirmed. The virus was grown on tissue culture in 1949.
- Three types of poliovirus were isolated and identified in 1951.
- Trials of Salk vaccine: The first large scale trial of Salk was performed in 1954. The use of Sabin in 1958 first general use of Sabin was done.
- As a result of the massive global vaccination campaign over the past 20 years, polio exists only in a few countries in Africa and Asia. In the Philippines, the last case was reported in 1993 and in 2000 the Philippines was certified as a polio-free country.
Types of polio vaccine
Inactivated Polio Vaccine
- Synonyms for IPV vaccine
- Salk vaccine
- IPV is a trivalent (strains 1,2,3) vaccine.
Salk Polio Vaccine
– Jonas firstly developed the Salk vaccine
2) Non-reversion (this inactivated polio vaccine cannot revert back, np side effect and safe to use).
3) types of poliovirus grown in monkey kidney tissue culture.
Procedure for preparation
- Standard virulent strains used.
- 3 types of polio vaccines grown separately in MKTC.
- Adequate titer filtered to remove debris and clumps.
- Inactivated with formalin at 37 degrees for 12-15 days.
- Stringent tests to ensure complete inactivation
- Issued for use.
- In 1954 the whole USA was vaccinated against polio and 80-90% population was protected.
- In 1955 100 cases of poliomyelitis were reported due to the insufficiently inactivated vaccine.
- IPV produces antibodies in the blood to all three types of poliovirus.
- As IPV is not a live vaccine, it carries no risk of VAPP.
- IPV triggers an excellent protective immune response in most people. • Shipping and transport are easy.
- IPV is over 5 times more expensive than OPV
- A booster regime is required.
- Do not stimulate local and mucosal immunity
- Administering the vaccine requires trained workers, as well as sterile injection, equipment, and procedure.
Oral Polio Vaccine
- Trivalent oral polio vaccine.
- A synonym is the Sabin vaccine.
- Developed by Albert Sabin in 1961.
- It is a live attenuated virus vaccine.
- Oral administration of vaccine yields a local gastrointestinal infection.
- A major caution with TOPV is that it is a live vaccine and must never be injected.
- Attenuated by a passage in the foreign host (MKC)
- Selection to grow in new in host makes viruses.
- Less sited to the original host.
- Stabilizers such as sucrose or trehalose or arginine hydrochloride may be added to retain the antigenicity.
- Inactivation is carried out by adding formalin at 0.025% concentration.
- Incubation at 37centigrade up to 48 hours and then at 23 centigrade up to 12 days.
- Test for free formaldehyde content after 12 hours consistent inactivation of the virus is monitored and verified.
- Oral polio vaccines are easily administered, with no need for highly trained.
- Induce both humoral and systemic immunity.
- Antibodies quickly produce as 1 or 2 doses of oral vaccine can give 90-100% results.
- Instability at high temperature.
- Very small residual neurovirulence in OPV.
- Frequent vaccine failure even with fully potent.
Storage of polio vaccine (OPV and IPV)
- OPV is a heat sensitive vaccine.
- Stored at -20 degrees.
- Having shelf life…
- 2 years at -20 degree
- 6 months at 2-8 degree
- 1-3 days at room temp.
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Poliovirus and Polio Vaccines