Plants used as a biofuel production


  • Biofuel are the fuel that produces by using agricultural crops and other biomass material within a short period of time.
  • Common commercial used biofuel are bioethanol, biodiesel, and bio methanol.
  • Bioethanol made from sugarcane, sugar beet, and algae.
  • Biodiesel is made from vegetable oil, animal fats and algal lipid and from nonedible crops.
  • Bio methanol made from organic waste agricultural waste.

Types of Biofuel

  1. Biogas
  2. Bioethanol
  3. Bioethanol
  4. Biofuel

Plants used as a biofuel production

Image Source: European Biofuel Portal

Classification of Biofuel

1. First Generation Biofuel

  • Also called conventional biofuel
  • Made from sugar, starch and vegetable oil animal fats
  • Bio-alcohol
  • biodiesel
  • biogas

2. Second Generation Biofuel (Also called Advance Biofuel made from nonedible

  • Straw
  • Grass
  • Jatropha plants
  • Pongamia plants
  • Waste vegetable

3. Third Generation Biofuel

  • Made from Algae and microbes
  • Algae Species
  • Alaria esculenta
  • Palmaria palmata

Raw Material

  • Sugarcane
  • Sugar beet
  • Corn
  • cassava
  • Canola oil
  • Sunflower

Corn as Biofuel


  • Starch – 61%
  • Corn oil- 3.8%
  • Protein- 8.0%A
  • Fiber-11.2%

Sugarcane as Biofuel

  1. Milling of sugarcane for separation of juice and bagasse
  2. Fermentation of Sugarcane into Alcohol
  3. Distillation and separation of Alcohol 95%
  4. Dehydration to remove water content

Rice as biofuel


  • Starch (70-72%)
  • Hull (20%)
  • Rice bran (7%)
  • Embryo (2-3%)
  • Rice bran contain oil (15- 23%)

Facts about rice as biofuel

  • The straw of rice consist of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin
  • Cellulose embedded in lignin matrix thus pre-treatment to convert cellulose to glucose by popping method
  • Similar to water impregnated steam explosion method,
  • sudden explosion with chemical effect from hydrolysis in high temperature
  • Microthermal explosion with help of so3 gas
  • Dilution with alkaline to remove lignin
  • Filtration to remove alkaline solution
  • Addition of water to form cellulosic mash
  • Enzyme hydrolyses
  • Fermentation to ethanol
  • Biofuel

Jatropha as Biofuel

  • Jatropha flowering plant belong to family Euphorbiaceae
  • More than 170 species but jatropha curcas important in case of biofuel (diesel production)
  • Discover in central America and Mexico
  • Now a different country like China, Brazil, India, Philippines, Australia
  • And also Pakistan producing fuel using Jatropha curcas plant.

Facts About Jatropha curcas

  • Jatropha curcas able to survive without watering 5-6 month
  • Able to survive at -4 to 45 C
  • Perennial give flowering 20-25 years
  • flowering 2 times in the year (First flowering in April, May, and Jun
  • Second times flowering in September, October and November)
  • In February plant drop leave
  • Baby plant appear after 9days of sowing seed 2-6-month plant transfer to the field
  • Reach to 6-10 feet height
  • A single branch of the plant contains 4-6 bunches of seeds

Pongamia pinnata

  • Pongamia pinnata (Leguminoceae. Subfamily Papilionoideae)
  • First time discover in Bangladesh and India commonly called as pongam or Karanja
  • Now found in Australia, Florida, Hawaii, Malaysia Thailand, Philippines
  • Drought resistant, heat, limestone, salinity, sand and shade withstand temperature 0-50C annually rainfall of 500-2500mm/annually
  • Nitrogen-fixing trees produce seeds containing 30-40% oil
  • ornamental and shade tree but now a day’s alternative source of bio-diesel
  • 6-8m height, trunk diameter more than 50cm
  • The bark is grayish-brown dark green leave


  • flowers are pink light purple or white.
  • Pods are thickened walled single seed
  • Seeds 10-20cm long oblong light brown color.


  • Seeds contain pongam oil, bitter in taste, red-brown color, thick, non-edible,
  • Seeds oil has a high content of triglycerides, disagreeable taste, and odor.
  • use as tanning leather, soap, illuminating oil.


  • price
    • The price of regular fuel is increasing due to increasing demand. while biofuel is less expensive due to progress in agriculture.
  • sources /raw materials
    • fuels have limited sources while biofuel has large resources like crops (edible & non-edible) manure and other waste materials.
  • renewability /biodegradable:
    • it takes very long time for fossil fuel to be produce, biofuel is much more easily renewable.
  • security:
    • biofuel can be produce locally, which decrease the nation’s dependence upon foreign energy.
  • economic stimulation/employment
    • biofuel manufacture plants can employ hundreds or thousands of workers, creating new jobs in rural area
  • carbon cycle
    • when biofuel burn produces very low co2 and absorbed this co2 itself.
  • nontoxic/safer
    • biofuel doesn’t contain sulfur and other toxic substance that actually produced by burning of regular fuel.
  • Greenhouse effect
  • ethanol blended biofuel such as Ethanol85% reduces up to 37.1% of the greenhouse effect


  • Release carbon dioxide result in global warming
  • Engine problem
  • Food prices
  • Food shortages
  • Water use
  • High cost
  • for refining purpose and to and to build a biofuel manufacturing plants to increase biofuel, high initial investment is required.




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Plants used as a biofuel production

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