Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) It is one of the most important biotechnological tools developed. It refers to a biological technique that helps to produce several copies of DNA outside of any living cell. DNA polymerase is the key enzyme that is present behind the whole process. The enzyme involved in the synthesis of new DNA … Read more Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Vancomycin-resistant bacteria: VRSA and VRE

Vancomycin-resistant bacteria VRSA and VRE

Vancomycin-resistant bacteria: VRSA and VRE What is Vancomycin? Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that is used to treat bacterial infections in the intestinal tract caused by Clostridium difficile and Staphylococcus infections and Enterococcus spp that cause inflammations in the large and small intestines. It can be administered in two ways, orally and intravenously. Oral administration … Read more Vancomycin-resistant bacteria: VRSA and VRE

Quorum Sensing in Bacteria

Quorum Sensing

Quorum Sensing in Bacteria Quorum sensing in bacteria Quorum. It is a Latin word that means a group of members carries out an activity legally. Quorum sensing is a mechanism of cell to cell signaling or density sensing in micro-organisms. Characteristics for quorum sensing For the bacteria to use quorum sensing constitutively, they must possess … Read more Quorum Sensing in Bacteria

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) What is PGPR? Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are the soil bacteria that colonize plant roots. They have the ability to: Reduce the insects and disease damage. Facilitate plant growth directly or indirectly. Decrease the global dependence on hazardous agricultural chemicals. Stimulate plant growth through mobilizing nutrients in the soil. Image Source: Paula … Read more Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)

Physiological overview of nervous system

Physiological overview of nervous system

Physiological overview of nervous system Central Nervous System: Controls most functions of the body and comprises the brain and spinal cord. Image Source: Youtube Sensory part- Sensory Receptors Sensory experiences excite sensory receptors. So the visual receptors in the eyes, auditory receptors in ears, tactile receptors on in body surface, etc are some examples. There are … Read more Physiological overview of nervous system

Superbugs as Global Crisis

Superbugs as Global Crisis

Superbugs microbes that become resistant to the drugs that should destroy and kill them can be bacterial or fungal strains Image Source: Tincture and Business Insider Sources/ Factors of Resistance Natural selection Antibiotic resistance gene “flow” in nature Resistance genes in plasmids transferred from one bacteria to another Resistant microorganisms become predominant in the environment … Read more Superbugs as Global Crisis

Entamoeba histolytica- Morphology, Epidemiology, Life cycle, Pathogenesis, Clinical findings

Entamoeba histolytica

Entamoeba histolytica– Morphology, Epidemiology, Life cycle, Pathogenesis, Clinical findings 500 Million populations are infected over the world. 60-70% population in Pakistan is infected Entamoeba histolytica caused amebic dysentery and liver abscess. Morphology Trophozoites A cyst (egg) Cyst= it is immovable and has disease-causing form. Cyst survives for a long period of time because it is … Read more Entamoeba histolytica- Morphology, Epidemiology, Life cycle, Pathogenesis, Clinical findings

Rust- Plant Fungal Disease

Rust- Plant Fungal Disease

Rust- Plant Fungal Disease Plant diseases caused by pathogenic fungi. Pucciniales (previously also known as Uredinales). Spermagonia Aecia Uredinia Telia Basidia Rusts hosts Apple Pear Wheat Barley Rye Infection area Leaves Petioles Tender shoots Stem Fruits Rusts are named after the reddish rusty looking sori and the disease is usually noticed after rain. The group contains pathogens that … Read more Rust- Plant Fungal Disease

Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) and MMR Vaccine

Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) and MMR Vaccine

Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) and MMR Vaccine The MMR which is comprised of a 3 in 1 vaccine, is one of the recommended childhood immunizations. It protects children against three highly contagious Viruses which are as follows: Measles Mumps Rubella (German Measles) Image Source: NFID and CSC Pharmaceuticals Measles Definition  Measles is “an acute viral … Read more Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) and MMR Vaccine

Fermentation of Vinegar

Fermentation of Vinegar

Fermentation of Vinegar Fermentation is the metabolic process by which organic molecules are converted into acids, gases or alcohol in the absence of oxygen. Types of Fermentation Lactic acid fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation. Read also: Design of a Fermenter (https://thebiologynotes.com/design-of-a-fermenter) Vinegar Vinegar is an aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace chemicals that may include flavoring. The … Read more Fermentation of Vinegar