Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) What is HIV? HIV stands for ‘human immunodeficiency virus’. It weakens a person’s immune system by destroying important cells that fight against disease and infection. HIV is a member of the genus Lentivirus, part of the family Retroviridae. It is the causative agent of AIDS.  AIDS is a condition in humans … Read more Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Cell Inclusion Bodies

Cell inclusion Bodies

Cell inclusion Bodies Bacterial cell inclusion bodies are otherwise known as granules. Electron microscopic observation reported the presence of both organic and inorganic granules inside the bacterial cell. These granules function as energy storage and these are also involved in reducing osmotic pressure. Some of these granules are found freely moving in the cytoplasm (polyphosphate, … Read more Cell Inclusion Bodies

Immunological Techniques

Immunological Techniques

Immunological Techniques Most of the immunological techniques are based upon the antigen-antibody reactions. Precipitation reactions are one of the important reactions that occur when antigen and antibody come to contact. When a soluble antigen reacts with its antibody in the presence of NaCl at optimal temperature and pH, the antigen-antibody complex forms an insoluble precipitate. … Read more Immunological Techniques

Terminology used in Basic Microbiology

Terminology used in Basic Microbiology

Terminology used in Basic Microbiology Aerobe = organisms that grow in the presence of atmospheric oxygen Anaerobe = grows in absence of free oxygen aerotolerant anaerobes = microbes that grow equally well whether or not oxygen is present facultative anaerobes = microbes that don’t require oxygen for growth but do grow better in its presence … Read more Terminology used in Basic Microbiology

The Bacterial Cell Wall

The Bacterial Cell Wall

The Bacterial Cell Wall The cell wall is the outer most rigid structure which provides the structure to the bacterial cell. Moreover, it helps the cell by providing protection to the cell from osmotic lysis, toxic chemicals, and other pathogens. The chemical structure of the bacterial cell wall is similar in different bacteria. However, the … Read more The Bacterial Cell Wall

Culture media used in microbiology

Culture media used in microbiology

Culture media used in microbiology Image Source: Sigma-Aldrich Nutrient agar(1% to 2%) –> Basal media in microbiology, Supports the growth of all non-fastidious organisms MacConkey Agar—> Differential media for Enterobacteriaceae ( i.e. Lactose fermenting and non-lactose fermenting) Mannitol Salt Agar–> Selective and indicator media for S. aureus Triple Sugar Iron(TSI) medium–> Differentiation of various members … Read more Culture media used in microbiology

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus- Properties, Epidemiology, Clinical Disease, Diagnosis, Treatment, Control, Prevention

Staphylococcus aureus Properties Ability to grow aerobically and anaerobically, over a wide range of temperatures, and in the presence of a high concentration of salt; the latter is important because these bacteria are a common cause of food poisoning. Polysaccharide capsule that protects the bacteria from phagocytosis. Cell surface proteins (protein A, clumping factor proteins) … Read more Staphylococcus aureus