Sterilization- physical and chemical methods

Sterilization- physical and chemical methods

Microorganisms play an important role in causing infection and contamination. Therefore, Sterilization is an important technique in microbiology which helps to remove or destroy microorganisms from materials or surfaces. Common Definitions Sterilization It is the process by which an article, surface or medium is made free of all microorganisms either in vegetative or spore form. … Read more Sterilization- physical and chemical methods

Solute Transport Mechanisms in Bacteria

Solute Transport Mechanisms in Bacteria

Bacteria require several nutrients for their growth. Structural components such as cell wall and cell membrane restrict the entry of several molecules inside the cell. Therefore, the specific mechanism for nutrient uptake is highly important for the bacterial cell. Image Source: Dr. Kenneth Todar There are different transport mechanisms involved in the process which are … Read more Solute Transport Mechanisms in Bacteria

Cell signaling and cAMP-mediated pathway

Cell signaling and cAMP-mediated pathway

Cell signaling and its types Cell signaling is referred to as the communication between various cells and molecules. The two most important part of cell signaling is a ligand and a receptor. A ligand is a molecule that is a primary messenger that binds to a specific receptor on the cell and transduces a signaling … Read more Cell signaling and cAMP-mediated pathway

Somaclonal Variation

Somaclonal Variation

Somaclonal Variation Definition The genetic variations found in the in vitro cultured cells are collectively referred to as somaclonal variations. Selection of somaclones Without in vitro selection: An explant (leaf, stem, root, etc.) is cultured on a suitable medium, supplemented with growth regulators. The unorganized callus and cells do not contain any selective agent (toxic … Read more Somaclonal Variation

Capsule, Flagella, Pili (Fimbriae), Glycocalyx (Slime Layer)

Capsule, Flagella, Pili (Fimbriae), Glycocalyx (Slime Layer)

Capsule, Flagella, Pili (Fimbriae), Glycocalyx (Slime Layer) Capsule The capsule is a gelatinous layer covering the entire bacterium. It is composed of polysaccharide, except in the anthrax bacillus, which has a capsule of polymerized d-glutamic acid. The sugar components of the polysaccharide vary from one species of bacteria to another and frequently determine the serologic … Read more Capsule, Flagella, Pili (Fimbriae), Glycocalyx (Slime Layer)

Effect of pathogens on plants

Effect of pathogens on plants

Effect of pathogens on plants What is Pathogen? A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. The term is most often used for the agent that disturb the normal physiology. The main pathogen are the virus, bacteria, and fungi. The physiological function includes: Pathogenesis Respiration Permeability … Read more Effect of pathogens on plants