Some common viral disease, symptom, prevention, treatment

Last Updated on May 20, 2020 by Sagar Aryal

Some common viral diseases, symptoms, prevention, treatment

Some common viral disease, symptom, prevention, treatment

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1- Smallpox

Pathogen – Variola poxvirus.

Mode of transmission – By air.

Symptom – Small pinkish itchy spots appear on the body with fever.

Prevention – Vaccination and proper sanitation.

2- Chickenpox

Pathogen – Varicella zoster.

Mode of transmission – Disease is transmitted by droplets or by direct skin contact, the virus enters through the respiratory route.

Symptom – Symptoms appear like headaches, body ache, anorexia, and fever, with the development of small painful blisters. These fluid blisters burst and dry but no scare formed on the skin.

Prevention and treatment – Treatment is done with adenine arabinoside-A. Vaccination, proper sanitation, and avoiding contact with the patient are preventive measures.

3- Measles

Pathogen – Rubella virus.

Mode of transmission – Droplet infection.

Symptoms – Red spot, fever and swelling in the mouth, buccal cavity and in the mucous membrane of nose and coughing, etc. The virus enters the upper respiratory tract and localizes in the subcutaneous and tonsil, lymph node, etc.

Prevention and treatment – We can prevent by avoiding contact with the patient, vaccination for measles (MMR/MMRV) in a 9-month child.

4- Poliomyelitis

Pathogen – Poliovirus.

Mode of transmission – By drinking of contaminated water.

Symptom – Virus activates the grey matter of the spinal cord, cause a contraction in the neck virus to affect the motor nerve of the spinal cord, paralysis with headache & fever.

Prevention and treatment – Vaccination is a preventive measure, there are two types of vaccine is available for polio, one is killed vaccine and another is a live attenuated vaccine. The killed vaccine is administrated by injection while vaccine administrated orally.

5- Rabies

Pathogen – Rhabdovirus

Mode of transmission – Virus spread by biting of dog, cat, and monkey.

Symptoms – Virus firstly activate the cell of the spinal cord and brain and destroys it. The occurrence of fever, headache, swelling in muscles of the chest and neck, the patient suffers from pain while engulfing food, fear from water (water phobia).

Treatment – Administration of anti-rabies vaccine. L. Pasture developed a vaccine, which is necessary to take 14 doses. But now a day a new vaccine Rabipur is used to treat the infection, six doses of this vaccine are sufficient. Another rabies vaccine Merieus human diploid cell vaccine is used to treat the infection, only three doses of this vaccine are sufficient.

6- Influenza

Pathogen – Orthomyxo-virus (Influenza virus).

Transmission – Droplet transmission.

Symptoms – Sudden chills, fatigue, headache, pain mainly in back and legs, fever up to 103° F – 104° F over 24 hours, nose obstruct, sneezing, and cough.

Treatment – Treatment includes the use of synthetic drug amantadine, which blocks viral penetration into cells.

7- Mumps

Pathogen – Mumps virus ( Paramyxo-virus).

Transmission – Droplet transmission and direct contact with skin.

Symptom – Virus infects the salivary glands of children, especially the parotid glands. The disease may begin on one side of the mouth but both glands affected in most cases.

Prevention and treatment – Vaccination is the best method to prevent the disease. Usually, MMR or MMRV use for vaccination

8- AIDS

Pathogen – HIV

Transmission – Sexual contact, use of contaminated needles and syringes, transfusion of infected blood, mother to child.

Symptoms – The symptom includes tiredness, fever, loss of appetite and weight, diarrhea, night sweats, and swollen lymph nodes. Virus damage the immune system.

Prevention and treatment – The disease does not have any cure. Only preventive measure are suggested to avoid the disease –

a- Avoid positive blood donors.

b- Avoid mother with AIDS against pregnancy.

c- Do not use used syringe and needles.

d- Avoid unsafe sex.

References

Class 12 zoology book by Veer Bala Rastogi.

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com (virus what are they and what do they do?)

http://www.healthgrades.com (viral disease – a symptom, causes, treatments – HealthGrades)

Some common viral diseases, symptoms, prevention, treatment

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