CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus (2021-2022) with Study Notes Link

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus and Study Notes Link

Unitwise Marking Scheme of CBSE Class 12 Biology (Code No. 044)

Unit Title Marks
VI Reproduction 14
VII Genetics and Evolution 18
VIII Biology and Human Welfare 14
IX Biotechnology and its Applications 10
X Ecology and Environment 14
Total 70

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CBSE Class 12 Biology Theory Syllabus 2021-2022

Unit-VI Reproduction

Chapter-1: Reproduction in Organisms

Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; modes of reproduction – asexual and sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction – binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants; events in sexual reproduction.

Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction

Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis – spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilization, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).

Chapter-4: Reproductive Health

Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control – need and methods; medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT, AI (brief overview).

Unit-VII Genetics and Evolution

Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Heredity and variation, Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; linkage and crossing over; Sex determination – in human being, birds, grasshopper and honey bee; Mutation, Pedigree analysis, sex-linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans –sickle cell anaemia, Phenylketonuria, thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation – lac operon; Human genome project; DNA fingerprinting.

Chapter-7: Evolution

Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); adaptive radiation; Biological evolution: Lamarck’s theory of use and disuse of organs, Darwin’s theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; brief account of evolution; human evolution.

Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases

Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter-9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Animal husbandry, Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein.

Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare

Microbes in food processing, industrial production, Antibiotics; production and judicious use, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers.

Unit-IX Biotechnology and its Applications

Chapter-11: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes

Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application

Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; RNA interference, Human insulin, gene therapy; molecular diagnosis; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.

Unit-X Ecology and Environment

Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations

Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, abiotic factors, ecological adaptations; population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism, commensalism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Chapter-14: Ecosystem

Ecosystem: structure and function; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services – carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).

Chapter-15: Biodiversity and Conservation

Biodiversity – Concept, levels, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.

Chapter-16: Environmental Issues

Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change impact and mitigation; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; case study exemplifying success story addressing environmental issue(s).

Read Also- CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus (2021-2022) with Study Notes Link

CBSE Class 12 Biology Practicals Evaluation Scheme

Evaluation Scheme Marks
One Major Experiment (5, 6, 8, 9) 5
One Minor Experiment (2, 3, 4) 4
Slide Preparation (1, 7) 5
Spotting 7
Practical Record + Viva Voce Credit to the students’ work over the academic session may be given 4
Investigatory Project and its
Project and its Record + Viva Voce
5
Total 30

A. List of Experiments

  1. Prepare a temporary mount to observe pollen germination.
  2. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.
  3. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity and presence of any living organism.
  4. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at two widely different sites.
  5. Study the plant population density by quadrat method.
  6. Study the plant population frequency by quadrat method.
  7. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
  8. Study the effect of different temperatures and three different pH on the activity of salivary amylase on starch.
  9. Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya, etc.

B. Careful observation of the following (Spotting)

  1. Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects, birds).
  2. Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide or scanning electron micrograph.
  3. Identification of stages of gamete development, i.e., T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slides (from grasshopper/mice).
  4. Meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.
  5. T.S. of blastula through permanent slides (Mammalian).
  6. Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/sizes of any plant.
  7. Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow’s peak and colorblindness.
  8. Controlled pollination – emasculation, tagging and bagging.
  9. Common disease causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, any fungus causing ringworm through permanent slides, models or virtual images. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.
  10. Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in xeric conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
  11. Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.

Reference and Source

http://cbseacademic.nic.in/curriculum_2022.html

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