Vorticella (Bell Animalcule)- An Overview

Vorticella (Bell Animalcule)

Vorticella (L.,vortex=whirl pool) is a microscopic, unicellular eukaryotic ciliate. It occurs as a sessile attached by a stalk to the substratum. Its body is almost bell-shaped or campanulate with a free anterior end surrounded by cilia. The commonest species is Vorticella campanula. Some of the species included in this genus … Read more

Aurelia (A Jellyfish)- An Overview

Aurelia- A Jellyfish

Aurelia is commonly referred to as jellyfish because it is made of a jelly-like substance. A jellyfish is not true fish which is a vertebrate animal with a backbone. It belongs to the class Scyphozoa of phylum Coelenterata. The most common scyphozoan jellyfish is Aurelia aurita (popularly known as moon … Read more

Arthropoda- 4 types of the respiratory systems

Arthropoda- 4 types of the respiratory systems

We know Arthropoda is the largest phylum, with the highest number of species, and the numbers of individuals are also high. So Arthropods have various types of respiratory systems, some of them described below : 1- Tracheal system 2- Book-lungs 3- Blood-gills 4- Gills 1. Tracheal Respiratory system It is … Read more

Euglena viridis- An overview

Euglena viridis

Euglena viridis (Gr.,eu, true+ glene, eyeball or eye pupil+L., Viridis, green) is a unicellular green organism with an eye-like photoreceptive structure.  It is phytoflagellate as it possesses both chloroplasts as well as flagella. It is autotrophic in sunlight but becomes heterotrophic in dark. Systematic position  Phylum: Protozoa Subphylum: Sarcomastigophora Superclass: … Read more

Hormones of Insects Body and Metamorphosis in insect

Hormones of Insects Body and Metamorphosis in insect

Hormones of Insects Body Although hormones are mainly present in chordates, yet some hormones are also present in arthropods, that is insects. There are various hormones secreted in insects, which play role in metamorphosis. Some of the hormones are as follows. 1- Brain hormone (BH) The brain has neurosecretory cells. … Read more

Hydra- Reproduction (Budding and Sexual), Regeneration, Immortality

Hydra Reproduction

Hydra reproduces asexually by budding and sexually by the formation of gametes. Asexual reproduction of Hydra by Budding Figure: Hydra Budding. 1. Non-reproducing, 2. Creating a bud, 3. Daughter growing out, 4. Beginning to cleave, 5. Daughter broken off, 6. Daughter clone of the parent. Image Source: A.houghton19 (Wikimedia). Budding is a … Read more

Economic Importance (Beneficial and Harmful) of Insects

Economic Importance (Beneficial and Harmful) of Insects

Some insects are helpful for agriculture and human welfare but some insects are pests of our crop and some insects have poisonous nature. Here we study some beneficial and harmful importance of insects. A- Beneficial Insects 1- Insects and insects product in the food Insects are an abundant food supply … Read more

Parasitic adaptation of flatworms and diseases caused by flatworm

Parasitic adaptation of flatworms and diseases caused by flatworm

Parasitic adaptation of flatworms Adaption in parasites to survive in the environment of a body of the host is called parasitic adaptation. Mainly flat-worm are parasitic except Turbellaria, so they are adapted for parasitic nature. There are two types of parasitic adaptation to suit their parasitic mode of life. Morphological … Read more

Protozoa- Locomotory organelles and locomotion methods

Protozoa- Locomotory organelles and locomotion methods

Locomotory Organelles in Protozoa Protozoan shows different verities of locomotory organs, such as pseudopodia, pellicular contractile structure, flagella, cilia.  1. Pseudopodia Pseudopodia are false feet of some Sarcodina protozoans such as Amoeba. Pseudopodia are a temporary structure form by streaming of cytoplasm. It is comprised of ectoplasm and endoplasm both. Pseudopodia … Read more

Hydra- Habit, Habitat, External Morphology, Internal Structures

Hydra- Habit, Habitat, External Morphology, Internal Structures

Hydra are inconspicuous freshwater relatives of corals, sea anemones, and jellyfish that are classified under the phylum Cnidaria, Class Hydrozoa, Order Anthomedusae/Anthoathecata, and Family Hydroidea. It is essentially a sedentary organism living attached to stones, pebbles, and water plants, but can get released from the substratum and swim. The name … Read more

Wuchereria bancrofti- Habitat, Morphology and Life Cycle

Wuchereria bancrofti- Habitat, Morphology and Life Cycle

Wuchereria bancrofti is a filarial nematode that causes Wuchereriasis or filariasis(commonly called elephantiasis) in human beings. The name of this worm is given Wuchereria bancrofti in honor of the two scientists Wucherer and Bancroft who made a considerable contribution in studying the disease caused by these worms. Image Source: Study … Read more

Earthworm- Reproductive System, Copulation, Cocoon formation

Reproductive system of earthworm

Reproductive system of earthworm Earthworms do not reproduce asexually. Reproductive organs are somewhat complicated. The pheretima is monoecious or hermaphrodites having both male and female reproductive organs in the same individual. They cannot fertilize their own eggs because they are protandrous. Cross-fertilization occurs as a rule because of the relative … Read more

Amoeba proteus- Nutrition, Respiration, Excretion, Osmoregulation

Amoeba proteus- Nutrition, Respiration, Excretion and Osmoregulation

Nutrition of Amoeba proteus Food and selection of food Amoeba is carnivorous. It feeds by phagocytosis. The mode of nutrition is Zootrophic or holozoic. i.e. it requires ready-made (solid form) organic substances for food. The food consists of algal cells and filaments, bacteria, desmids, flagellates, ciliates, small metazoans such as … Read more

Amoeba proteus- Habitat, Culture and Structures

Amoeba proteus- Habitat, Culture and Structures

Classification of Amoeba proteus Phylum: Protozoa Subphylum: sacromastigophora Superclass: Sarcodina Class: Rhizopodea Subclass: Lobosia Order: Amoebida Genus: Amoeba Species: proteus Habit and Habitat of Amoeba proteus Amoeba proteus is widely distributed and commonly found on the bottom mud or on the underside of aquatic vegetation in freshwater, ponds, ditches, lakes, … Read more

Reproduction in Paramecium

Reproduction in Paramecium

Paramecium reproduces asexually by transverse binary fission and also undergoes several types of nuclear reorganization, such as conjugation, endomixis, autogamy, cytogamy, and hemixis, etc. 1.  Transverse binary fission (Asexual reproduction) This is the commonest type of Asexual reproduction in Paramecium. It occurs during the favorable condition when food is available … Read more

Feeding mechanism in Paramecium

Feeding mechanism in paramecium

1. Food Paramecium feeds in a holozoic manner, like an amoeba. The food comprises chiefly bacteria and minute protozoa which floats in the water in which it lives. It also feeds unicellular plants (algae, diatoms, yeasts, etc.) and small bits of animals and vegetables. Paramecium swims to a place where … Read more

Paramecium caudatum- Habitat, Culture, Structure, Locomotion

Paramecium caudatum- Habitat, Culture, Structures, Locomotion

Habit and Habitat Paramecium caudatum (Gr., paramekes=oblong+ L., caudata=tail) is a free-living organism which is one of the most common species of Paramecium having worldwide distribution. It is commonly found in freshwater, ponds, pools, ditches, streams, lakes, reservoirs, and rivers. It is usually found abundant in water containing decaying organic … Read more

Excretory or Nephridial System of Earthworm

Excretory or Nephridial System of Earthworm

The excretory organs are segmentally arranged, microscopic, coiled tubules called nephridia. Nephridia are ectodermal in origin. These are typically unbranched, and their inner ends open into coelom by a ciliated funnel, called nephrostome. A large number of small-sized nephridia are found in each segment which are called micronephridia and mesonephridia. … Read more