Virology VIVA Question and Answer with mnemonics

Virology VIVA Question and Answer

1) What is the genome present inside the virus? Either DNA or RNA but not both. 2) What is the genome present in Coronavirus? RNA 3) Can we observe virus in general laboratory using a light microscope? No, they are too small whose size ranges from 20-250 nm in size. … Read more

Use of Convalescent Plasma to treat COVID-19 patients (FAQs)

Convalescent Plasma to treat COVID-19 patients (FAQs)

Medical Disclaimer: The information presented on this page is only for academic and study purposes and must not be used for the purpose of treatment. If you are not feeling well, please consult with your physician or doctor. Today, the world is still under the threat of pandemic COVID-19.  Different countries … Read more

Biochemistry of Hepatitis A (Biochemical Tests)

Biochemistry of Hepatitis A

What is Hepatitis A Virus? Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a cause of acute liver inflammation or hepatitis. It can cause relapsing signs and symptoms but not a chronic infection. The virus is a 27-nm-diameter non-enveloped RNA virus. It belongs to the family Picornaviridae and the genus Hepatovirus. Viral transmission occurs … Read more

MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and Spanish flu

Pandemic and epidemic Coronavirus and flu viruses

Viruses with a high mutation rate “that is a reason there are no permanent vaccination against it”. According to Jean and Peter Medawar 1977 virus “simply a piece of bad news wrapped up in protein” (from Bad News Wrapped in Protein: Inside Coronavirus Genome by Jonathan Corum and Carl Zimmer). … Read more

SARS-CoV-2- Infection, ACE-2 gene, herd immunity, vaccines

SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19

Image created using biorender.com Type of coronavirus strains There are seven strains of coronavirus Human Coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) Human Coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven Corona Virus) Human Coronavirus OC43(HCoV-OC43) Human Coronavirus HKU1 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Related Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 & HCoV-EMC Severe Acute Respiratory … Read more

Some common viral disease, symptom, prevention, treatment

Some common viral disease, symptom, prevention, treatment

Some common viral diseases, symptoms, prevention, treatment Image Source: iStockphoto 1- Smallpox Pathogen – Variola poxvirus. Mode of transmission – By air. Symptom – Small pinkish itchy spots appear on the body with fever. Prevention – Vaccination and proper sanitation. 2- Chickenpox Pathogen – Varicella zoster. Mode of transmission – … Read more

Having the symptoms doesn’t always confirm COVID-19

SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19

The symptoms of the cold that we frequently have, the flu, and COVID-19 have got quite a number of overlaps. Therefore symptoms alone cannot confirm whether a person is having a novel coronavirus or nCoV infection. There has to be an array of symptoms that need to get weaved together … Read more

COVID-19 diagnosis: Abbott RealTime SARS-CoV-2 assay

Abbott RealTime SARS-CoV-2 assay

Medical Disclaimer: The information presented on the website is only for academic and study purposes and must not be used for the purpose of diagnosis. If you are not feeling well, please consult with your physician or doctor. Introduction We have so far discussed the most current diagnostic tests that … Read more

COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test for antibodies detection

COVID-19 IgG-IgM Rapid Test for antibodies detection

Medical Disclaimer: The information presented on the website is only for academic and study purposes and must not be used for the purpose of diagnosis. If you are not feeling well, please consult with your physician or doctor. Introduction So far we have discussed three tests currently authorized by the … Read more

COVID-19 Diagnostic Test: Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2

Medical Disclaimer: The information presented on the website is only for academic and study purposes and must not be used for the purpose of diagnosis. If you are not feeling well, please consult with your physician or doctor. Introduction COVID-19 disease caught the world unaware, unprepared for a pandemic as … Read more

COVID-19 Diagnostic Test: Abbott ID NOW COVID-19

Abbott ID NOW COVID-19

Medical Disclaimer: The information presented on the website is only for academic and study purposes and must not be used for the purpose of diagnosis. If you are not feeling well, please consult with your physician or doctor. Introduction The world is coming to terms with the current situation of … Read more

COVID-19 – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

COVID-19 - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

COVID-19 Basics What is COVID-19? This is an infectious disease that was discovered to causes a cluster of pneumonia cases first identified in Wuhan, China. It is caused by the 2019 Novel Coronavirus, formerly known as “2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)”  and the disease was officially named COVID-19, by the World … Read more

Disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is officially called COVID-19

Disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is now officially called COVID-19

Disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is officially called COVID-19 COVID-19 According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the disease caused by Novel Coronavirus, 2019-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2) is now officially called COVID-19. CO means Corona. VI means Virus. D means Disease. 19 means the year that it was first discovered. “We had to … Read more

Diagnosis of Novel Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)

Diagnosis of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

Introduction Lab diagnosis refers to the identification, examination & confirmation of pathogens in the lab. The diagnosis of virus infection can be established in several ways, often used together, namely: Detection of virus particles, viral antigens or viral nucleic acids in specimens taken from the appropriate site. Culture of infectious … Read more

Treatment, Vaccine and Management of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2)

Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)- Treatment, Vaccine, Management

In the past two decades, we have witnessed epidemic and pandemic, severe respiratory tract illnesses, whose etiological pathogens are viruses. They include H5N1 influenza in 1997, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and pandemic H1N1 influenza in 2009, epidermic MERS-CoV in 2012 and just recently the emergence of the … Read more

Epidemiology of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2

Epidemiology of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2

Image Source: Wikipedia and CDC Disclaimer: These data are collected from different sources over the internet. There can be some inaccuracy in the data given on this page. Epidemiology of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 as of April 27, 2020 Epidemiology of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 as of April 26, 2020 … Read more

Novel Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 (Updated 2020)

The Novel Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 An Overview (Updated 2020)

Introduction A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China was caused by a novel beta coronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the disease caused by Novel Coronavirus, 2019-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2) is now officially called COVID-19. Data collected and analyzed from patients using Real-time … Read more

Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) and MMR Vaccine

Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) and MMR Vaccine

Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) and MMR Vaccine The MMR which is comprised of a 3 in 1 vaccine, is one of the recommended childhood immunizations. It protects children against three highly contagious Viruses which are as follows: Measles Mumps Rubella (German Measles) Image Source: NFID and CSC Pharmaceuticals Measles Definition … Read more

Poliovirus and Polio Vaccines

Poliovirus and Polio Vaccines

Poliovirus It is an infectious disease caused by poliovirus which affects the spinal cord and brain stem, it leads to paralysis and even leads to death. Poliovirus is the causative agent of poliomyelitis. Children under 5 years of age are more susceptible to this disease. Reservoir Human. Spread through feces. … Read more