Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) What is HIV? HIV stands for ‘human immunodeficiency virus’. It weakens a person’s immune system by destroying important cells that fight against disease and infection. HIV is a member of the genus Lentivirus, part of the family Retroviridae. It is the causative agent of AIDS.  AIDS … Read more

Virus Classification on the basis of morphology and replication

Virus Classification on the basis of morphology and replication

Virus Classification on the basis of morphology and replication Viruses are a specific group of microorganisms that can replicate only inside of a cell. These are extremely small organisms and visible only under an electron microscope. Viral infections can occur in all types of life forms including plants, animals and … Read more

Outbreak of Wuhan pneumonia 2019-20 (2019-nCoV)

Outbreak of Wuhan pneumonia 2019-20 (2019-nCoV)

Outbreak of Wuhan pneumonia 2019-20 (2019-nCoV) The recent outbreak of Wuhan pneumonia has threatened China and the nearby states. Travelers from the Wuhan city being suffered from fever and cough are on strict observations at the airports. Medical authorities in the different international airports are supervising the travelers as to … Read more

Transmission of Plant Viruses

Transmission of Plant Viruses

Plant viruses are transmitted from plant to plant in several ways. The mode of transmission includes: Vegetative propagation Mechanically through sap Through seed, pollen, dodder By specific insects, mites, nematodes, and fungi Image Sources: Crop Nutrition Laboratory Services Ltd. and https://doi.org/10.1111/1744-7917.12470 Transmission by Vegetative Propagation Whenever plants are propagated vegetatively … Read more

Viral Diseases of Leaf

Viral Diseases of Leaf

Why do we study viral diseases of the leaf? that infect humans can infect plants too. Leaves are important parts because they are the primary source of photosynthesis Respiration, Transpiration, Guttation (in some plants only). A leaf is a plant organ, exposed to the external environment and is the primary … Read more

Bacteriophage- Structure, Classification, Application

Bacteriophage- Structure, Classification, Application

Bacteriophage- Structure, Classification, Application The virus that infects only bacterial cells (bacteria eater) Known as naturally abundant obligate intracellular parasites Niche- present where bacteria or archaea reside Diversity is more than the number of bacteria in nature Small size causes it to beyond the limits of light microscope resolution Smallest … Read more

Chicken Pox (Varicella-zoster virus)

Chicken Pox (Varicella-zoster virus)

What is chickenpox? Herpes virus (DNA) Primary infection results in varicella (chickenpox) Recurrent infection results in herpes zoster (shingles) Short survival in the environment Image Source: Wikipedia Structure VZV virions are spherical and 180–200 nm in diameter. Their lipid envelope encloses the 100 nm nucleocapsid Nucleocapsid has 162 hexameric and pentameric … Read more

Influenza virus- Structure, Types, Life Cycle

Influenza virus- Structure, Types, Life Cycle

Influenza commonly called a flue is a highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory tract mainly infects humans and animals. Influenza virus belongs to the family: Orthomyxoviridae The annual attack rate of influenza virus is 5-10% in adults and 20-30% in children. Virus Structure Enveloped virus Has helical nucleocapsid  sense … Read more

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis is a liver infection. It is caused by the Hepatitis C virus which is a blood-borne virus. It is a short term illness but it can be asymptomatic until decades after the infection. Chronic Hepatitis C is a serious disease that can result in long term health problems and … Read more

Virology VIVA Question and Answer with mnemonics

Virology VIVA Question and Answer

1) What is the genome present inside the virus? Either DNA or RNA but not both. 2) What is the genome present in Coronavirus? RNA 3) Can we observe virus in general laboratory using a light microscope? No, they are too small whose size ranges from 20-250 nm in size. … Read more

Use of Convalescent Plasma to treat COVID-19 patients (FAQs)

Convalescent Plasma to treat COVID-19 patients (FAQs)

Medical Disclaimer: The information presented on this page is only for academic and study purposes and must not be used for the purpose of treatment. If you are not feeling well, please consult with your physician or doctor. Today, the world is still under the threat of pandemic COVID-19.  Different countries … Read more

Biochemistry of Hepatitis A (Biochemical Tests)

Biochemistry of Hepatitis A

What is Hepatitis A Virus? Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a cause of acute liver inflammation or hepatitis. It can cause relapsing signs and symptoms but not a chronic infection. The virus is a 27-nm-diameter non-enveloped RNA virus. It belongs to the family Picornaviridae and the genus Hepatovirus. Viral transmission occurs … Read more

MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and Spanish flu

Pandemic and epidemic Coronavirus and flu viruses

Viruses with a high mutation rate “that is a reason there are no permanent vaccination against it”. According to Jean and Peter Medawar 1977 virus “simply a piece of bad news wrapped up in protein” (from Bad News Wrapped in Protein: Inside Coronavirus Genome by Jonathan Corum and Carl Zimmer). … Read more

SARS-CoV-2- Infection, ACE-2 gene, herd immunity, vaccines

SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19

Image created using biorender.com Type of coronavirus strains There are seven strains of coronavirus Human Coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) Human Coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven Corona Virus) Human Coronavirus OC43(HCoV-OC43) Human Coronavirus HKU1 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Related Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 & HCoV-EMC Severe Acute Respiratory … Read more

Some common viral disease, symptom, prevention, treatment

Some common viral disease, symptom, prevention, treatment

Some common viral diseases, symptoms, prevention, treatment Image Source: iStockphoto 1- Smallpox Pathogen – Variola poxvirus. Mode of transmission – By air. Symptom – Small pinkish itchy spots appear on the body with fever. Prevention – Vaccination and proper sanitation. 2- Chickenpox Pathogen – Varicella zoster. Mode of transmission – … Read more

Having the symptoms doesn’t always confirm COVID-19

SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19

The symptoms of the cold that we frequently have, the flu, and COVID-19 have got quite a number of overlaps. Therefore symptoms alone cannot confirm whether a person is having a novel coronavirus or nCoV infection. There has to be an array of symptoms that need to get weaved together … Read more

COVID-19 diagnosis: Abbott RealTime SARS-CoV-2 assay

Abbott RealTime SARS-CoV-2 assay

Medical Disclaimer: The information presented on the website is only for academic and study purposes and must not be used for the purpose of diagnosis. If you are not feeling well, please consult with your physician or doctor. Introduction We have so far discussed the most current diagnostic tests that … Read more

COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test for antibodies detection

COVID-19 IgG-IgM Rapid Test for antibodies detection

Medical Disclaimer: The information presented on the website is only for academic and study purposes and must not be used for the purpose of diagnosis. If you are not feeling well, please consult with your physician or doctor. Introduction So far we have discussed three tests currently authorized by the … Read more

COVID-19 Diagnostic Test: Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2

Medical Disclaimer: The information presented on the website is only for academic and study purposes and must not be used for the purpose of diagnosis. If you are not feeling well, please consult with your physician or doctor. Introduction COVID-19 disease caught the world unaware, unprepared for a pandemic as … Read more