Brain’s Immune system- Microglial cells

Brain’s Immune system- Microglial cells

Introduction The central nervous system (CNS) has a microglial cell as a primary defense mechanism. Microglia originate from primitive macrophages of the yolk sac. In CNS parenchyma microglia contribute 10% of total glial cells population. They are natives of CNS and equally disseminated within the brain and spinal cord. They are prime cells for supporting … Read more Brain’s Immune system- Microglial cells

Inflammatory Mediators

Inflammatory Mediators

What is Inflammation? Inflammation is a well-managed constantly changing reaction comprehend by cellular and vascular activities. It comprises of movement of leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, etc.) to the injured site and discharge of stimulators and signaling molecules (histamine, serotonin, oxygen radicals, etc.) Each type of inflammation generated by different mechanisms. Vascular events arouse via injury … Read more Inflammatory Mediators

Inflammation – definition, types, causes and treatment

Types of inflammation

Inflammation definition Inflammation is a supportive mechanism against tissue damage or infections. It stimulates the immune system to repair injured tissues and defense against diseases from foreign organisms. Sometimes inflammatory reactions lead to self-injury by provoking defensive action against the body’s cells or it may an exaggerated reaction to the less harmful antigen. Injured or … Read more Inflammation – definition, types, causes and treatment

Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) & innate immune system

Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs)

Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) The human body has the receptors that can identify the invading microbial pathogens, these receptors are called Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs). PRRs are the major part of the innate immune system, recognizing the pathogens. PRRs can perform their function by recognizing conserved patterns present in microbial molecules, these molecular patterns are … Read more Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) & innate immune system

Hypersensitivity Type I, Type II, Type III, Type IV

Hypersensitivity Type I, Type II, Type III, Type IV

Allergy is the response of the immune system to small or harmless substances like dust, pollens, smoke, etc. It’s in fact called hypersensitivity reactions. Hypersensitivity refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system. Type I ◦ Allergy (immediate) Type II ◦ cytotoxic, antibody-dependent Type III ◦ Immune complex diseases Type IV ◦ Delayed … Read more Hypersensitivity Type I, Type II, Type III, Type IV

Differences between Real-Time PCR and Rapid Diagnostic Test

Differences between Real-Time PCR and Rapid Diagnostic Test

Rapid Diagnostic Test vs Real-Time PCR (qPCR) There are several diagnostic tests that have been authorized for Emergency Use by the FDA for diagnosis of a wide range of infections. Notably, these diagnostic tests aim at identifying an infected individual from a non-infected person, using different working principles and duration for the tests vary. Diagnostic … Read more Differences between Real-Time PCR and Rapid Diagnostic Test

COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test for antibodies detection

COVID-19 IgG-IgM Rapid Test for antibodies detection

Medical Disclaimer: The information presented on the website is only for academic and study purposes and must not be used for the purpose of diagnosis. If you are not feeling well, please consult with your physician or doctor. Introduction So far we have discussed three tests currently authorized by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) … Read more COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test for antibodies detection

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)- Types and Pathways

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Definition The major histocompatibility complex can be defined as a tightly linked cluster of genes whose products play an important role in intercellular recognition and in discrimination between self and non-self. The term ‘histo’ stands for tissue and ‘compatibility’ refers to ‘getting along or agreeable’. On the other hand, the term … Read more Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)- Types and Pathways

Immunological Techniques

Immunological Techniques

Immunological Techniques Most of the immunological techniques are based upon the antigen-antibody reactions. Precipitation reactions are one of the important reactions that occur when antigen and antibody come to contact. When a soluble antigen reacts with its antibody in the presence of NaCl at optimal temperature and pH, the antigen-antibody complex forms an insoluble precipitate. … Read more Immunological Techniques