MHC Molecules, Antigen Processing and Presentation

MHC Class I and II Pathways

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules characteristics The Major Histocompatibility complex is a genetic locus that encodes the glycoprotein molecules (transplantation antigens) which are responsible for tissue rejection of grafts between genetically unidentical individuals. It is also the molecule that binds the peptide antigens processed by Antigen-presenting Cells and presents them … Read more

Antibodies- Definition, Structure, Types, Forms, Functions

Antibodies- Definition, Structure, Types, Forms, Functions

Introduction and History for Antibodies These are protein molecules naturally produced or synthesized by the B-lymphocytes. They are also known as Immunoglobulins. The use of the term antibody defines an Immunoglobulin molecule that has specificity for an epitope of the molecules that make up antigens. Produced and secreted by plasma … Read more

Active and Passive Immunity- Definition, Types, Differences

Active and Passive Immunity- Definition, Types, Differences

Immunity Definition Immunity can be defined as the ability of a multicellular organism’s body to protect themselves from foreign agents and infectious agents, by being able to destroy them to prevent further body infections. Immunity to infectious microorganisms can be achieved by active or passive immunization. In each case, immunity … Read more

Hematopoiesis and Cells of the Immune system

Cells of the Immune system

What are the cells of the Immune system? The immune system is made up of different immune organs and tissues located all over the body. The immune organs are categorized based on their functions and there are two main categorize, which include: Primary lymphoid organs provide a development and maturation … Read more

Vaccines- Definition, Types, Examples, Side Effects

Definition and History of Vaccines A vaccine is an agent that is prepared from an antigen or pathogen by either deactivating its mechanisms of protein synthesis or denaturing or killing them. This allows the preparation of an agent that can be introduced into the host in order to induce an … Read more

Immunity- Immune System and Immunization

Immunity- Immune System and Immunization

The Immunity Phenomenon Mechanism of Immunity As much as immunity curtails to the 430 B.C, significantly improved immunity phenomenal were made in the 18th century starting with Edward Jenner in 1798 after he noticed that milkmaids that had contracted the mild-disease of cowpox, were immune to smallpox (a fatally deadly … Read more

Brain’s Immune system- Microglial cells

Brain’s Immune system- Microglial cells

Introduction The central nervous system (CNS) has a microglial cell as a primary defense mechanism. Microglia originate from primitive macrophages of the yolk sac. In CNS parenchyma microglia contribute 10% of total glial cells population. They are natives of CNS and equally disseminated within the brain and spinal cord. They … Read more

Inflammatory Mediators

Inflammatory Mediators

What is Inflammation? Inflammation is a well-managed constantly changing reaction comprehend by cellular and vascular activities. It comprises of movement of leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, etc.) to the injured site and discharge of stimulators and signaling molecules (histamine, serotonin, oxygen radicals, etc.) Each type of inflammation generated by different mechanisms. … Read more

Inflammation – definition, types, causes and treatment

Types of inflammation

Inflammation definition Inflammation is a supportive mechanism against tissue damage or infections. It stimulates the immune system to repair injured tissues and defense against diseases from foreign organisms. Sometimes inflammatory reactions lead to self-injury by provoking defensive action against the body’s cells or it may an exaggerated reaction to the … Read more

Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) & innate immune system

Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs)

Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) The human body has the receptors that can identify the invading microbial pathogens, these receptors are called Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs). PRRs are the major part of the innate immune system, recognizing the pathogens. PRRs can perform their function by recognizing conserved patterns present in microbial … Read more

Hypersensitivity Type I, Type II, Type III, Type IV

Hypersensitivity Type I, Type II, Type III, Type IV

Allergy is the response of the immune system to small or harmless substances like dust, pollens, smoke, etc. It’s in fact called hypersensitivity reactions. Hypersensitivity refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system. Type I ◦ Allergy (immediate) Type II ◦ cytotoxic, antibody-dependent Type III ◦ Immune complex … Read more

Differences between Real-Time PCR and Rapid Diagnostic Test

Differences between Real-Time PCR and Rapid Diagnostic Test

Rapid Diagnostic Test vs Real-Time PCR (qPCR) There are several diagnostic tests that have been authorized for Emergency Use by the FDA for diagnosis of a wide range of infections. Notably, these diagnostic tests aim at identifying an infected individual from a non-infected person, using different working principles and duration … Read more

COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test for antibodies detection

COVID-19 IgG-IgM Rapid Test for antibodies detection

Medical Disclaimer: The information presented on the website is only for academic and study purposes and must not be used for the purpose of diagnosis. If you are not feeling well, please consult with your physician or doctor. Introduction So far we have discussed three tests currently authorized by the … Read more

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)- Types and Pathways

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Definition The major histocompatibility complex can be defined as a tightly linked cluster of genes whose products play an important role in intercellular recognition and in discrimination between self and non-self. The term ‘histo’ stands for tissue and ‘compatibility’ refers to ‘getting along or agreeable’. On … Read more

Immunological Techniques

Immunological Techniques

Immunological Techniques Most of the immunological techniques are based upon the antigen-antibody reactions. Precipitation reactions are one of the important reactions that occur when antigen and antibody come to contact. When a soluble antigen reacts with its antibody in the presence of NaCl at optimal temperature and pH, the antigen-antibody … Read more