Citric Acid Production

Citric Acid Production

Citric Acid Production INTRODUCTION Citric acid is the most important commercial product which is found in almost all plant and animal tissues. The molecular formula of citric acid is C6H8O7, 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propane tricarboxylic acid.  It is widely used organic acid in the field of food (60%) and pharmaceuticals (10%). In 1784 … Read more

Factors affecting microbes in foods

Factors affecting microbes in foods

Factors affecting microbes in foods The microbial flora of food consists of microorganisms associated with the raw material, processing and those surviving pasteurization and preservation treatments. There are about 25 genera of bacteria in food causing either spoilage and or user in desirable effects. Examples: Clostridium, Bacilli, Serratia, Staphylococcus, Pediococuus, … Read more

Ethanol Production

Ethanol Production

Introduction Biological process in which sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose) are converted into cellular energy. Ethanol is produced in the result of this process. It is colorless, volatile or flammable liquid. It is widely used as biofuel as well as an alcoholic beverage is increasingly being consumed globally. This is mainly … Read more

Probiotic strains and their Human benefits

Probiotic strains and their Human benefits

Probiotic strains and their Human benefits What are Probiotics? Probiotics are living microorganisms that are intended to have health benefits when consumed or applied to the body. They are majorly found in milk products like yogurt, cheese, fermented foods, and food supplements. The Science of microorganisms has shown that most … Read more

Bacterial Foodborne Illness

Bacterial Foodborne Illness

Foodborne Illness definition Foodborne illness refers to the different diseases and infections caused by microorganisms in food items. This article is mainly focused on the Foodborne illness caused by bacteria. Another term related to foodborne illness is food poisoning. A closer look toward these terms can help to understand different … Read more

Mycotoxins- Related to Food Microbiology

Mycotoxins in Foods

Mycotoxins definition Microbial toxins are metabolites produced by a specific microorganism during its growth or life cycle. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several fungi that have a severe impact on human or animal health. The mycotoxins are not only responsible for causing disease but it can also lead to … Read more

Malnutrition in Nepal with 5 major causes of high rate

Malnutrition in Nepal

Malnutrition in Nepal Despite several efforts, the situation of malnutrition in Nepal is alarming. Malnutrition is a serious problem in Nepal and is a major threat to the health of infants, adolescent girls, and pregnant and lactating mothers. According to NDHS (Nepal Demographic and Health Survey) in 2011, 41% of … Read more

Beer production

Beer production

Beer production The process of beer production is known as brewing. Word brewing is derived from “Bieber” its means to drink. Basically beer is produced from all grains but at the industry, level produced only from barley. Types of barley beer Top fermented beer (yeast at the top) Bottom fermented … Read more

Fermentation of Vinegar

Fermentation of Vinegar

Fermentation of Vinegar Fermentation is the metabolic process by which organic molecules are converted into acids, gases or alcohol in the absence of oxygen. Types of Fermentation Lactic acid fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation. Read also: Design of a Fermenter (https://thebiologynotes.com/design-of-a-fermenter) Vinegar Vinegar is an aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace chemicals … Read more

Probiotics and Prebiotics

Probiotics and Prebiotics

PROBIOTICS The term probiotics are derived from Greek. Literally means “for life”. Firstly, observed by Lilly and Stillwell in 1965. Currently defined by WHO and FAO “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bifidobacteria are the most … Read more