Plant Taxonomy- Definition, History, Classification, Types

Plant Taxonomy

Taxonomy was recognized as a general subject only in 1813 by A.P.de Candolle. His famous work describes in the book of which name is Theorie elementaire de la botanique. Taxonomy is a combination of Greek words ‘taxis’ means arrangement and ‘nomos’ means rules or law. Taxonomy deals with the identification, nomenclature, and classification of plants. Classical Taxonomy The Classical Taxonomy is also known as “Orthodox Taxonomy”. Classical Taxonomy generally deals with operational procedures such as identification, nomenclature, & classification of … Read more

Plant diseases caused by Virus, Bacteria, Mycoplasma, Fungi

Plant diseases caused by Virus, Bacteria, Mycoplasma, Fungi

Although some microbes are beneficial for human welfare, some of them are used for the production of bio-fertilizer, some are useful for industries, yet there are several microorganisms, which are the cause of plant disease. Such as some viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, and fungi can cause several types of disease in plants. Some of the viral, bacterial, mycoplasmal, and fungal diseases are described here. Viral diseases in Plants Leafroll disease of potato Causal organism (pathogen) – Leafroll virus is also known … Read more

Factors for the establishment of plant diseases

Factors for the establishment of plant diseases

These are the factors for the establishment of plant diseases. Pathogen properties. Properties of the host. Presence/absence of nutritional component. Properties of environment. Image Source: AspenCore, Inc A) Pathogen properties 1. Level of virulence: Pathogen’s ability to infect/damage the host or to infect a resistant gene. 2. Adaptability: The ability of a microbe to grow according to environmental conditions. 3. Dispersal efficiency: Efficient spore dispersal by pathogen or pathogen itself dispersed, by water, air or vector. 4. Survival efficiency: In … Read more

Herbarium: Kinds and Functions

Herbarium Kinds and Functions

Herbarium: Kinds and Functions It is a collection of plant specimens that are pressed, preserved, dead and dried, also arranged in a sequence of classification for future purpose and study. The specimens\sample may be a complete plant or a part of the plant, specimens should be in dried form on a sheet paper. Almost 3000 herbarians available in the world, mostly used by mycologists, plant pathologists, taxonomists, and health scientists. Index herbarium it is a project of the international association … Read more

Plant Transformation Methods

Plant Transformation Methods

Plant Transformation Methods Transformation is defined as the process in which the genetic material of an organism is altered by the integration of new genes into its genome. The transformation is done by using vectors such as plasmids. The importance to produce transgenic plants is to: Improve crop yields. Improvement of varietal traits. transgenic plants have protection against their parasites, pests and harsh weather conditions. History The transformation was the first time applied by British Bacteriologist Frederick Griffith in 1928 … Read more

Rice bacterial blight and Citrus canker

Rice bacterial blight and Citrus canker

Rice bacterial blight and Citrus canker According to Julius Kuhn, plant disease is an abnormal change in physiological processes which disturbs the normal activity of plant organs. Significance Plant disease are important due to the economic loss they cause to the grower. The loss occurs in the field during storage at any time between sowing and consumption of the harvest. Standing crops can be attacked by a disease and plants start dying and to yield satisfactorily reduced. E.F Smith is … Read more

Plants defense mechanism- structural, histological, chemical

Plants defense mechanism

Plants defense mechanism Plants diseases or phytopathogens affects plants right from the planting stage up to the harvesting and storage of the produce. Consequently, the plants have evolved several different mechanisms by which they defend themselves. These defense mechanisms in plants are termed as “BASAL RESISTANCE”. This term referring to two distinct aspects of plant-pathogen interaction. Constitutive defense. Induced defense. Conditions under which pathogens cause disease in the plant. For the development of the disease in plants, there must be … Read more

Rust- Plant Fungal Disease

Rust- Plant Fungal Disease

Rust- Plant Fungal Disease Plant diseases caused by pathogenic fungi. Pucciniales (previously also known as Uredinales). Spermagonia Aecia Uredinia Telia Basidia Rusts hosts Apple Pear Wheat Barley Rye Infection area Leaves Petioles Tender shoots Stem Fruits Rusts are named after the reddish rusty looking sori and the disease is usually noticed after rain. The group contains pathogens that have a harmful effect on agriculture, forestry, and horticulture. These fungi have significant concerns and a short number of factors to cultivate agricultural and forestry … Read more

Biological and Chemical control of plant diseases

Biological and Chemical control of plant diseases

Biological control of plant diseases 1- Parasitoids One parasitoid attack only on one host, and remain alive as a free-living adult in the host. The size of the parasitoids is the same as the host or may be smaller than the host. Mechanism The female parasitoid lays eggs inside or on the insect host. The egg hatched and legless larva affects the host on the surface or internally. A large number of parasitoids feed on pollen and act as pollinators. … Read more

Plants used as a biofuel production

Plants used as a biofuel production

Biofuel Biofuel are the fuel that produces by using agricultural crops and other biomass material within a short period of time. Common commercial used biofuel are bioethanol, biodiesel, and bio methanol. Bioethanol made from sugarcane, sugar beet, and algae. Biodiesel is made from vegetable oil, animal fats and algal lipid and from nonedible crops. Bio methanol made from organic waste agricultural waste. Types of Biofuel Biogas Bioethanol Bioethanol Biofuel Image Source: European Biofuel Portal Classification of Biofuel 1. First Generation … Read more