Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) It is one of the most important biotechnological tools developed. It refers to a biological technique that helps to produce several copies of DNA outside of any living cell. DNA polymerase is the key enzyme that is present behind the whole process. The enzyme involved in the synthesis …

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Quorum Sensing in Bacteria

Quorum Sensing

Quorum Sensing in Bacteria Quorum sensing in bacteria Quorum. It is a Latin word that means a group of members carries out an activity legally. Quorum sensing is a mechanism of cell to cell signaling or density sensing in micro-organisms. Characteristics for quorum sensing For the bacteria to use quorum sensing constitutively, …

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Fermentation of Vinegar

Fermentation of Vinegar

Fermentation of Vinegar Fermentation is the metabolic process by which organic molecules are converted into acids, gases or alcohol in the absence of oxygen. Types of Fermentation Lactic acid fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation. Read also: Design of a Fermenter (https://thebiologynotes.com/design-of-a-fermenter) Vinegar Vinegar is an aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace chemicals that may …

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Plants used as a biofuel production

Plants used as a biofuel production

Biofuel Biofuel are the fuel that produces by using agricultural crops and other biomass material within a short period of time. Common commercial used biofuel are bioethanol, biodiesel, and bio methanol. Bioethanol made from sugarcane, sugar beet, and algae. Biodiesel is made from vegetable oil, animal fats and algal lipid and from …

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Design of a Fermenter

Design of a Fermenter

Design of a Fermenter Fermenter or bioreactor refers to a device that provides all the basic necessities important for biological product extraction. A fermenter contains different devices that help to maintain the environmental factor inside it which in turn leads to the production of biological products. Therefore the main objective of a …

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Somaclonal Variation

Somaclonal Variation

Somaclonal Variation Definition The genetic variations found in the in vitro cultured cells are collectively referred to as somaclonal variations. Selection of somaclones Without in vitro selection: An explant (leaf, stem, root, etc.) is cultured on a suitable medium, supplemented with growth regulators. The unorganized callus and cells do not contain any …

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Methods to control plant nematodes

Methods to control plant nematodes

What are Nematodes? The word nematode is derived from Greek words- Nema meaning “thread” and oids meaning “resembling or forms”. Nematodes are also known by different names such as threadworms, roundworms, eelworms, and nema. Nematodes constitute the largest group of an animal kingdom comprising 80-90% of all multicellular animals. These organisms are …

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Ethanol Production

Ethanol Production

Introduction Biological process in which sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose) are converted into cellular energy. Ethanol is produced in the result of this process. It is colorless, volatile or flammable liquid. It is widely used as biofuel as well as an alcoholic beverage is increasingly being consumed globally. This is mainly because of …

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