Metabolism and Metabolic Regulation

Metabolism and Metabolic Regulation

Metabolism involved biological reactions and non-biological reactions which need organisms to lives life. Metabolism includes the conjugation, reduction, dehydroxylation, cyclization, methylation, phosphorylation, and oxidation of substrates (beta-oxidation of fatty acid, glucose, etc.) and the liberation of energy, heat, and carbon dioxide. Metabolism is considered as: Primary metabolism: Primary metabolism is … Read more

Nitrogenous Waste, Urea cycle and Formation of uric acid

Nitrogenous Waste, Urea cycle and Formation of uric acid

Ammonia is a toxic product to the body of animals, thus ammonia is continuously excreted from the body of the animals, in various from depending upon the external environment and physiology of animals. Types of animal-based on excretion of nitrogenous waste There are different types of nitrogenous waste products in … Read more

Testing for Biological Molecules

Testing for Biological Molecules

Benedict’s test for reducing sugars Definition Benedict’s test is a biochemical test performed to distinguish reducing sugars (monosaccharides and some disaccharides) from non-reducing sugars. Objectives To detect the presence of simple carbohydrates in a solution. To distinguish between reducing and non-reducing sugars. Principle The carbohydrates having a free or potentially … Read more

Lipids- Definition, Structure and Functions, Fatty acids

Lipids and Fatty Acids

What are Lipids? Lipids are a group of diverse macromolecules consisting of fatty acids and their derivatives that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. Lipids consist of fats, oils, hormones, and certain components of membranes that are grouped together because of their hydrophobic interactions. The lipids are essential constituents … Read more

Factors affecting enzyme action and immobilized enzymes

Factors that affect enzyme action

Factors that affect enzyme action Enzymes are biological catalysts that accelerate the rate of chemical reactions in the biological system of living beings. Like catalysts, enzymes are also affected by a number of factors that regulate enzyme action. These factors are related to the chemical nature of enzymes as enzymes … Read more

Enzyme Inhibitors- Competitive, Noncompetitive, End-product inhibition

Enzyme Inhibitors and Enzyme Inhibition

What are Enzyme Inhibitors? Inhibitors are compounds that convert the enzymes into inactive substances and thus adversely affect the rate of enzymatically-catalyzed reaction is called an enzyme inhibitor, and the process involved is termed enzyme inhibition. Some enzyme inhibitors are normal body metabolites that inhibit a particular enzyme while other … Read more

Amino acids and Proteins

Amino acids and Proteins

Amino acids Proteins are the structural scaffolds of our bodies. At the molecular level whatever function is going on, it is being assisted or done by a protein. Proteins have a wide array of structures and functions, but all proteins are similar when it comes to their building blocks. These … Read more

Buffer Solutions

Buffer Solutions

Buffer Solutions DEFINITION A buffer is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid & its salt or a weak base & its salt that resist a change in pH on the addition of either acid or base. Note:- A lot of biological & chemical reactions need … Read more

Phytohormones (Plant hormones)

Phytohormones (Plant hormones)

Plant Hormones – A compound produced by one part of the plant. Hormones – A compound produced in one area of an organism and has an effect on another area. Image Source: BioNinja Classes of Plant Hormones Major classes of hormones produced by plants and PGPR are: Auxins (IAA) Cytokinins … Read more

Process of Glyoxylate cycle- An Overview and Summary

Process of Glyoxylate cycle

Germinating seeds can convert stored lipids into glucose by a cyclic process known as the glyoxylate cycle. Animal-like vertebrate can’t use the acetate of acetyl CoA into gluconeogenesis. So they can’t convert lipid into glucose via gluconeogenesis, because stored lipid firstly breaks into acetate of acetyl CoA and then enter … Read more

How other carbohydrates enter into glycolytic pathway ?

How other carbohydrates enter into glycolytic pathway

Other carbohydrates such as polysaccharides like dietary starch and glycogen are breakdown their monomer (glucose) during digestion by the action of amylase enzyme, and now glucose absorbed into the cell where it enters glycolysis, but endogenous glycogen, some disaccharides (trehalose, maltose, lactose), and some monosaccharides, which are not the intermediates … Read more

Fate of Pyruvate (Fate of End product of Glycolytic pathway)

Fate of Pyruvate (Fate of End product of Glycolytic pathway)

Pyruvate can enter in lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation in anaerobic condition, in aerobic condition pyruvate loss hydrogen and carbon dioxide and convert into acetyl CoA and enter into the TCA cycle, and also enter into the biosynthetic pathway. In the case of low glucose levels, pyruvate enters into … Read more

Pentose phosphate pathway- An Overview and Summary

Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP)

Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) It is also called a Phosphogluconate Pathway or Hexose Monophosphate pathway. In this pathway, NADP+ is an electron acceptor instead of NAD+. This is taking place in the two-phase- oxidative phase of PPP and non-oxidative phase of PPP. Figure: The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The PPP … Read more

Glycogen metabolism- Breakdown and Biosynthesis of Glycogen

Glycogen metabolism- Breakdown and Biosynthesis of Glycogen

Glycogen is stored polysaccharide in vertebrate and some micro-organism, whereas starch in case of the plant. Glycogen Breakdown Breakdown of glycogen takes place through the three enzymatic reactions, glycogen phosphorylase, glycogen debranching enzyme, and phosphoglucomutase. Three steps are as follow – Glycogen phosphorylase action Glycogen phosphorylase removes glucose residue as … Read more

Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis- An Overview and Summary

Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis

Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis Glycolysis is the process of breakdown of glucose, while gluconeogenesis is the synthesis of glucose. Gluconeogenesis is the opposite of glycolysis with some bypass steps. Glycolysis Glycolysis is a breakdown of one molecule of glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvate through a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, and … Read more