Process of Glyoxylate cycle- An Overview and Summary

Process of Glyoxylate cycle

Germinating seeds can convert stored lipids into glucose by a cyclic process known as the glyoxylate cycle. Animal-like vertebrate can’t use the acetate of acetyl CoA into gluconeogenesis. So they can’t convert lipid into glucose via gluconeogenesis, because stored lipid firstly breaks into acetate of acetyl CoA and then enter into gluconeogenesis …

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How other carbohydrates enter into glycolytic pathway ?

How other carbohydrates enter into glycolytic pathway

Other carbohydrates such as polysaccharides like dietary starch and glycogen are breakdown their monomer (glucose) during digestion by the action of amylase enzyme, and now glucose absorbed into the cell where it enters glycolysis, but endogenous glycogen, some disaccharides (trehalose, maltose, lactose), and some monosaccharides, which are not the intermediates of the …

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Fate of Pyruvate (Fate of End product of Glycolytic pathway)

Fate of Pyruvate (Fate of End product of Glycolytic pathway)

Pyruvate can enter in lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation in anaerobic condition, in aerobic condition pyruvate loss hydrogen and carbon dioxide and convert into acetyl CoA and enter into the TCA cycle, and also enter into the biosynthetic pathway. In the case of low glucose levels, pyruvate enters into gluconeogenesis. Figure: …

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Pentose phosphate pathway- An Overview and Summary

Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP)

Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) It is also called a Phosphogluconate Pathway or Hexose Monophosphate pathway. In this pathway, NADP+ is an electron acceptor instead of NAD+. This is taking place in the two-phase- oxidative phase of PPP and non-oxidative phase of PPP. Figure: The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The PPP branches after …

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Glycogen metabolism- Breakdown and Biosynthesis of Glycogen

Glycogen metabolism- Breakdown and Biosynthesis of Glycogen

Glycogen is stored polysaccharide in vertebrate and some micro-organism, whereas starch in case of the plant. Glycogen Breakdown Breakdown of glycogen takes place through the three enzymatic reactions, glycogen phosphorylase, glycogen debranching enzyme, and phosphoglucomutase. Three steps are as follow – Glycogen phosphorylase action Glycogen phosphorylase removes glucose residue as alpha-D glucose …

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Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis- An Overview and Summary

Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis

Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis Glycolysis is the process of breakdown of glucose, while gluconeogenesis is the synthesis of glucose. Gluconeogenesis is the opposite of glycolysis with some bypass steps. Glycolysis Glycolysis is a breakdown of one molecule of glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvate through a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, and ATP & …

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Glycolysis 10 Steps with Diagram and ATP Formation

Glycolysis 10 Steps with Diagram and ATP Formation

Aerobic respiration refers to the concept of the breakdown of nutrients and the production of energy. Any organism, when consuming any nutritive material, the material goes through a series of biochemical reactions by which simple form of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are produced. After that, these produced compounds are further degraded and …

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Biochemistry of Hepatitis A (Biochemical Tests)

Biochemistry of Hepatitis A

What is Hepatitis A Virus? Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a cause of acute liver inflammation or hepatitis. It can cause relapsing signs and symptoms but not a chronic infection. The virus is a 27-nm-diameter non-enveloped RNA virus. It belongs to the family Picornaviridae and the genus Hepatovirus. Viral transmission occurs in a …

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Experimental techniques in Chemistry

Experimental techniques in Chemistry

Analytical Chemistry  It is the science of chemical characterization. What are the major steps for qualitative analysis?  Obtaining a sample for analysis Separation of the desired constituent Measurement and calculation of results Drawing conclusion Image Source: Pexels. Filteration The process used to separate the insoluble particles from the liquid. It can be …

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Eicosanoids – definition, classes, functions, synthesis

Eicosanoids

Eicosanoids definition Eicosanoids are biologically active lipid derivatives of unsaturated fatty acids containing 20 carbons. Eicosanoids are locally acting bioactive hormones that act near the point of hormone synthesis and included in the class of paracrine hormones. disease. Eicosanoids are derived from arachidonic acid and related polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as …

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