Bacteriophage- Structure, Classification, Application

Bacteriophage- Structure, Classification, Application

Bacteriophage- Structure, Classification, Application The virus that infects only bacterial cells (bacteria eater) Known as naturally abundant obligate intracellular parasites Niche- present where bacteria or archaea reside Diversity is more than the number of bacteria in nature Small size causes it to beyond the limits of light microscope resolution Smallest bacteriophage: 20 nanometers in diameter, … Read more Bacteriophage- Structure, Classification, Application

Environmental Factors affecting Microbial Growth

Environmental Factors affecting Microbial Growth

Environmental Factors affecting Microbial Growth Apart from nutritional components growth of the microbes are also dependent on several environmental factors. These factors play an important role in understanding the growth pattern of a microbe. Apart from that, it is important to understand these factors especially in an industrial set up where a huge amount of … Read more Environmental Factors affecting Microbial Growth

Probiotic strains and their Human benefits

Probiotic strains and their Human benefits

Probiotic strains and their Human benefits What are Probiotics? Probiotics are living microorganisms that are intended to have health benefits when consumed or applied to the body. They are majorly found in milk products like yogurt, cheese, fermented foods, and food supplements. The Science of microorganisms has shown that most bacterial characteristics are similar morphologically … Read more Probiotic strains and their Human benefits

Microbial Growth and Nutrition

Microbial Growth and Nutrition

Microbial Growth and Nutrition Micro and Macro Nutrients The microbial cell is made up of several elements such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron. These are also known as macro elements or macronutrients because these elements are required in high amounts by the microbes. Among these, C, H, O, … Read more Microbial Growth and Nutrition

Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria with commercial uses

Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria

GRAM NEGATIVE These are the characteristics of Gram-negative bacteria Cytoplasmic content is present means periplasm is present. The much thicker Peptidoglycan layer is present in gram-negative than gram-positive bacteria. The outer membrane of gram-negative contains LPS ( lipopolysaccharides) that contain, core polysaccharides, Lipid- A, and O- Antigen). Porins present in the outer membrane, that act … Read more Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria with commercial uses

Direct and Viable Microbial Count Methods

Direct and Viable Microbial Count Methods

Image Source: R-Biopharm AG 1. Direct Counts Counting Chamber Technique: In the direct microscopic count, a counting chamber with a ruled slide is employed. It is constructed in such a manner that the ruled lines define a known volume. The number of bacteria in a small known volume is directly counted microscopically and the number … Read more Direct and Viable Microbial Count Methods

Sterilization- physical and chemical methods

Sterilization- physical and chemical methods

Microorganisms play an important role in causing infection and contamination. Therefore, Sterilization is an important technique in microbiology which helps to remove or destroy microorganisms from materials or surfaces. Common Definitions Sterilization It is the process by which an article, surface or medium is made free of all microorganisms either in vegetative or spore form. … Read more Sterilization- physical and chemical methods

Solute Transport Mechanisms in Bacteria

Solute Transport Mechanisms in Bacteria

Bacteria require several nutrients for their growth. Structural components such as cell wall and cell membrane restrict the entry of several molecules inside the cell. Therefore, the specific mechanism for nutrient uptake is highly important for the bacterial cell. Image Source: Dr. Kenneth Todar There are different transport mechanisms involved in the process which are … Read more Solute Transport Mechanisms in Bacteria

Cell signaling and cAMP-mediated pathway

Cell signaling and cAMP-mediated pathway

Cell signaling and its types Cell signaling is referred to as the communication between various cells and molecules. The two most important part of cell signaling is a ligand and a receptor. A ligand is a molecule that is a primary messenger that binds to a specific receptor on the cell and transduces a signaling … Read more Cell signaling and cAMP-mediated pathway

Capsule, Flagella, Pili (Fimbriae), Glycocalyx (Slime Layer)

Capsule, Flagella, Pili (Fimbriae), Glycocalyx (Slime Layer)

Capsule, Flagella, Pili (Fimbriae), Glycocalyx (Slime Layer) Capsule The capsule is a gelatinous layer covering the entire bacterium. It is composed of polysaccharide, except in the anthrax bacillus, which has a capsule of polymerized d-glutamic acid. The sugar components of the polysaccharide vary from one species of bacteria to another and frequently determine the serologic … Read more Capsule, Flagella, Pili (Fimbriae), Glycocalyx (Slime Layer)