The Bacterial Cell Wall

The Bacterial Cell Wall

The Bacterial Cell Wall The cell wall is the outer most rigid structure which provides the structure to the bacterial cell. Moreover, it helps the cell by providing protection to the cell from osmotic lysis, toxic chemicals, and other pathogens. The chemical structure of the bacterial cell wall is similar … Read more

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus- Properties, Epidemiology, Clinical Disease, Diagnosis, Treatment, Control, Prevention

Properties of Staphylococcus aureus Ability to grow aerobically and anaerobically, over a wide range of temperatures, and in the presence of a high concentration of salt; the latter is important because these bacteria are a common cause of food poisoning. Polysaccharide capsule that protects the bacteria from phagocytosis. Cell surface … Read more

Ideonella sakaiensis- Plastic eating bacteria

Ideonella sakaiensis- Plastic eating bacteria

Ideonella sakaiensis- Plastic eating bacteria Today the use of plastic and the pollutants has been the global threat. It has created an impact on the terrestrial as well as the marine ecosystem. Though the use of plastic has to comfort our living style, the lack of proper management has created … Read more

Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7

Escherichia coli O157H7

What is Escherichia coli O157:H7? Escherichia coli O157:H7  is a serotype of enterohemorrhagic E. coli which is Shiga toxin-producing. It produces Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and/or Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) as the virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity by the formation of attachment and effacing (A/E) lesions on human … Read more

Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria

Carbapenemase Producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE)

Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria The Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative bacteria are a group of bacteria that have developed resistance against Carbapenem Antibiotics a last resort drug of administration for most gram-negative bacterial infections that have developed resistance against all possible antibiotics. These include the Carbapenemase Producing Organisms( CPOs)  and Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CREs). Carbapenem-Resistant … Read more

Solute Transport Mechanisms in Bacteria

Solute Transport Mechanisms in Bacteria

Bacteria require several nutrients for their growth. Structural components such as cell wall and cell membrane restrict the entry of several molecules inside the cell. Therefore, the specific mechanism for nutrient uptake is highly important for the bacterial cell. Image Source: Dr. Kenneth Todar There are different transport mechanisms involved … Read more

Plague and its forms caused by Yersinia pestis

Plague and its forms caused by Yersinia pestis

What is the Plague? Plague, a term originally applied to any widespread disease which causes great mortality. The name is now confined to Bubonic Plague, an infectious disease of animals and humans caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. History In AD 541, the first great plague pandemic spread throughout the … Read more

Treponema pallidum – An Overview

Treponema pallidum

Classification Class- Spirochaetes Order- Spirochaetales Family- Spirochaetaceae Genus- Treponema Species- Treponema pallidum Image Source: Russell Publishing Limited. Morphology of Treponema pallidum Treponemes are thin, delicate, helically coiled, corkscrew-shaped organisms. They are microaerophilic and actively motile. They are measures about 10 to 14 micrometers long and 0.1 to 0.2 micrometer wide. … Read more

Bacterial diseases- pathogen, symptom, prevention, treatment

Bacterial diseases

Image Source: Microbiology Society. Some of the bacterial diseases with their name of pathogen, transmission, symptom, treatment, and prevention are as follows: 1- Tuberculosis Pathogen – Microbacterium tuberculosis. Mode of transmission – Transmitted by air. Symptom – Bacteria damage the tissues mainly of the lung, the occurrence of fever, and … Read more

Pathogenicity and Clinical manifestation of Salmonella Typhi

Pathogenicity and Clinical manifestation of Salmonella Typhi

Pathogenesis of Salmonella Typhi (Enteric fever/Typhoid fever) Enteric fever is usually caused by strains of Salmonella Typhi & Paratyphi A, B, and C. Enteric fever is generally characterized by infection of reticuloendothelial system & intestinal lymphoid tissue accompanied by sustained fever & bacteremia. The transmission occurs via oral route usually … Read more

Vancomycin-resistant bacteria: VRSA and VRE

Vancomycin-resistant bacteria VRSA and VRE

Vancomycin-resistant bacteria: VRSA and VRE What is Vancomycin? Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that is used to treat bacterial infections in the intestinal tract caused by Clostridium difficile and Staphylococcus infections and Enterococcus spp that cause inflammations in the large and small intestines. It can be administered in two ways, … Read more

Quorum Sensing in Bacteria

Quorum Sensing

Quorum Sensing in Bacteria Quorum sensing in bacteria Quorum. It is a Latin word that means a group of members carries out an activity legally. Quorum sensing is a mechanism of cell to cell signaling or density sensing in micro-organisms. Characteristics for quorum sensing For the bacteria to use quorum … Read more

Superbugs as Global Crisis

Superbugs as Global Crisis

Superbugs microbes that become resistant to the drugs that should destroy and kill them can be bacterial or fungal strains Image Source: Tincture and Business Insider Sources/ Factors of Resistance Natural selection Antibiotic resistance gene “flow” in nature Resistance genes in plasmids transferred from one bacteria to another Resistant microorganisms … Read more