Bioplastic – Definition, Type, Advantages, Disadvantages

Bioplastic Definition

Bioplastic means “plastic derived from biomass”.  According to IUPAC (International union of pure and applied chemistry) “Biobased polymer derived from the biomass or issued from monomers derived from the biomass and which, at some stage in its processing into a finished product, can be shaped by flow. Bioplastic is an emerging research area because our environment shows an adverse effect due to the high consuming plastic. The petroleum-based plastic polyethylene, polypropylene polyester, polytetrafluoroethylene mainly use our daily life. Petroleum-based plastic is non-degradable as well as nonrecyclable. Increasing uses of plastic, not a particular plastic recycling technology in many countries, plastic waste dump in landfills, oceans. Every year many aquatic organisms die because of plastic waste, contaminated soil effect show on crop productivity. Bioplastic (Biopolymers) research tries to solve this problem. Bioplastic is degradable and environment-friendly plastic. Bioplastic first tries to replace one time useable, short time periods using plastic such as packaging, containers, begs, bottle, pots, crockery, cutlery, bowls, and straws.


Image Source: European Union.

Bioplastic Type

Bioplastic is many types based on using raw materials and their application. Bioplastic is mainly made up of starch, cellulose, polylactic acid, and Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), etc.

Advantages of Bioplastic

  1. The bioplastic produced from biomass, which is non-toxic, degradable, and recyclable.
  2. Minimize plastic waste through bioplastic using.
  3. Reduced dependency on petroleum-based plastic and market fluctuation.

Disadvantages of Bioplastic

  1. The bioplastic making process is expensive to process compare to petroleum plastic.
  2. bioplastic is not stable, durable compare to petroleum plastic.
  3. has a lot of competition between bioplastic industries or food manufacturing units.
  4. Bioplastic also produced pollution due to fertilizers and pesticide using during crop production.


  1. Bioplastic – An Eco- Friendly Alternative to Petroleum Plastics, M. SELVAMURUGAN* and P. SIVAKUMAR, Current World Environment, 2019 Vol. 14, No. (1), Pg. 49-59,
  2. The Truth About Bioplastic by Renee Cho, State of the Planet, Earth Institute, Columbia University,
  3. Bioplastic

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