Bacterial diseases- pathogen, symptom, prevention, treatment

Last Updated on June 9, 2020 by Sagar Aryal

Bacterial diseases

Image Source: Microbiology Society.

Some of the bacterial diseases with their name of pathogen, transmission, symptom, treatment, and prevention are as follows:

1- Tuberculosis

Pathogen – Microbacterium tuberculosis.

Mode of transmission – Transmitted by air.

Symptom – Bacteria damage the tissues mainly of the lung, the occurrence of fever, and a bloody cough.

Prevention and treatment – Para-amino salicylic acid is useful. Vaccination of BCG in a newborn child, prevent infection.

2- Diphtheria

Pathogen – Corynebacterium diphtheria.

Mode of transmission – Transmission takes place by contaminated food and hand.

Symptoms – Bacteria form a grayish-white membrane, which block the respiratory path, resides in thorat and tonsil causing inflammation. The occurrence of fever, with lung and brain damage.

Prevention and treatment – Avoid contaminated food and hand. A nontoxic toxoid is prepared from exotoxin of diphtheria used as a vaccine for the prevention of disease, administrated to children as DPT vaccine.

3- Typhoid

Pathogen – Salmonella Typhi.

Mode of transmission – Transmitted by contaminated food.

Symptoms – Bacteria damage the wall of the alimentary canal, due to this occurrence of fever and weakness. The main symptom of the disease is continuous fever, frontal headache, and slow pulse.

Prevention and treatment – Avoid unhygienic food, administration of chloromycetin is useful.

4- Leprosy (also called Hansen’s disease)

Pathogen – Mycobacterium leprae.

Mode of transmission – Transmitted by contact with the patient.

Symptom – Spot on the skin, deformity of hand, loss of feeling on the skin, bums, and scare.

Prevention and treatment – Prevention takes place by avoiding contact with the patient. Treatment is done with medicine like diamino-diphenyl sulfone and B663 Geigy.

5- Tetanus

Pathogen – Clostridium tetani.

Mode of transmission – It takes place by soil, contact of the wound to the dung of cow and horses.

Symptom – Painful and violent contraction of muscles especially in neck and jaw region, also called lock jaws.

Prevention and treatment – When got a wound to take an injection of ATS (anti-tetanus serum), vaccination of DPT to 6 weak children is helpful.

6- Cholera

Pathogen – Vibrio cholera.

Mode of transmission – Transmitted through contaminated food and water.

Symptoms – The main symptom is nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea with a loss of fluid.

Prevention and treatment – Prophylactic measures include proper sanitation, consumption of clean water, and food and vaccination. Intravenous injections of antibiotics like doxycycline or tetracycline are useful to reduce the duration of symptoms,

7- Pertusis (also called whooping cough)

Pathogen – Bordetella (Haemophilus) pertusis

Mode of transmission – Droplet transmission by coughing and sneezing, etc.

Symptom – Damaged cells accumulate in the airways and blocks the bronchus with mucus and debris. Making breathing very difficult, pitched “whoop” on rapid inspiration results from the narrowing tubes.

Prevention and treatment – Prophylactic measures include vaccination by killed cells of this causal bacterium, early treatment of disease is mainly by uses of antibiotics like erythromycin and penicillin derivatives.

8- Pneumonia

Pathogen – Streptococcus pneumonia (earlier known as Diplococcus pneumonia).

Mode of transmission – Transmitted through respiratory droplets.

Symptoms – Symptoms include high fever, chest pain, and inflammation in liver and gall bladder causing difficulties in respiration and leading to shivering. In the lung, it destroys the alveolar walls resulting in blood secretion. It may be lobar pneumonia and double pneumonia.

Prevention and treatment – Prophylactic measures include DPT vaccination and proper sanitation. Therapy includes the use of antibodies like penicillin, tetracycline, ampicillin, and other drugs.

References

  1. Class 12 zoology by Dr. Veer Bala Rastogi.
  2. https://www.healthgrades.com (Bacterial disease, infection, symptom, causes)
  3. https://www.webmd.com (Tuberculosis / TB: symptom, sign, cause, transmission)

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