Cilia- Definition, Structure, Ultrastructure, Functions

Cilia- Definition, Structure, Ultrastructure, Functions

What are Cilia? The word cilia is derived from the Latin word cili which means eyelash. In the Latin word, Flagella means little whip. They are microscopic which can’t be seen with naked eyes. They have the contractile property and are filamentous processes of the cytoplasm. Food currents are created … Read more

Microtubules- Definition, Structure, Composition, Functions

Microtubules

What are Microtubules? The cytoskeleton of the eukaryotic cell is made of proteins that give shape to it. The three types of protein that help in the organization of the cell are microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments. This cytoskeleton is absent in the bacteria. Tubulin is present in the microtubules. … Read more

Lysosomes- Definition, Structure, Enzymes, Types, Functions

Lysosomes

What are Lysosomes? The name Lysosome is derived from the Greek word where “lyso” means digestive and “soma” means body. Lysosomes are membrane-bound vesicle which is tiny in the structure. Lysosomes are involved in intracellular digestion. Different kinds of hydrolytic enzymes are present in the lysosome. Under acidic conditions, these … Read more

Ribosome- Definition, Types, Structure, Composition, Functions

Ribosome

What is Ribosome? The ribosome is a large complex that is made from dozens of small proteins. These small proteins are ribosomal proteins. It consists of many several RNA molecules which are called ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). The word ribosome is made up of ribo+somes. “Ribo” stands for ribonucleic acid. In … Read more

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)- Definition, Structure, Functions

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)

What is Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)? The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) which consists of ribosomes on its surface is known as the rough endoplasmic reticulum. So it is also called the granular endoplasmic reticulum. Translocon is the binding site of the ribosome on the rough endoplasmic reticulum. These ribosomes look like … Read more

Mitochondria- Definition, Properties, Structure, Functions

Mitochondria Structure

Mitochondria Properties Mitochondria is the cell organelle which is filamentous and granular structure. It is present in higher plants, animals, and some microorganisms.  It is absent in bacteria but is found in algae, protozoa, and fungi. To carry out the energy metabolism, mitochondria have got the lipoprotein framework.  It consists … Read more

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum- Definition, Structure, Functions

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum- Structure and Functions

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) In 1897, Garnier observed the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) with a light microscope. Ergastoplasm was the term coined by him. In 1945 Porter first reported the Endoplasmic Reticulum. It was discovered independently by Porter and Thompson. It is a continuous membrane system. At one end, it connects the … Read more

Terminology used in Basic Microbiology

Terminology used in Basic Microbiology

Terminology used in Basic Microbiology Aerobe = organisms that grow in the presence of atmospheric oxygen Anaerobe = grows in absence of free oxygen aerotolerant anaerobes = microbes that grow equally well whether or not oxygen is present facultative anaerobes = microbes that don’t require oxygen for growth but do … Read more

VIVA Alert: Basic Microbiology with mnemonics

VIVA Alert Basic Microbiology with mnemonics

VIVA Alert: Basic Microbiology with mnemonics Name one cluster shaped (grape-like) cocci? Staphylococcus aureus Name one chain shaped cocci? Streptococcus spp. What is the difference between Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus? S. aureus is cluster shaped and Streptococcus is chain shaped. S. aureus is catalase-positive and Streptococcus is catalase negative. Name … Read more

Culture media used in microbiology

Culture media used in microbiology

Culture media used in microbiology Image Source: Sigma-Aldrich Nutrient agar(1% to 2%) –> Basal media in microbiology, Supports the growth of all non-fastidious organisms MacConkey Agar—> Differential media for Enterobacteriaceae ( i.e. Lactose fermenting and non-lactose fermenting) Mannitol Salt Agar–> Selective and indicator media for S. aureus Triple Sugar Iron(TSI) … Read more

Outbreak of Wuhan pneumonia 2019-20 (2019-nCoV)

Outbreak of Wuhan pneumonia 2019-20 (2019-nCoV)

Outbreak of Wuhan pneumonia 2019-20 (2019-nCoV) The recent outbreak of Wuhan pneumonia has threatened China and the nearby states. Travelers from the Wuhan city being suffered from fever and cough are on strict observations at the airports. Medical authorities in the different international airports are supervising the travelers as to … Read more

Ideonella sakaiensis- Plastic eating bacteria

Ideonella sakaiensis- Plastic eating bacteria

Ideonella sakaiensis- Plastic eating bacteria Today the use of plastic and the pollutants has been the global threat. It has created an impact on the terrestrial as well as the marine ecosystem. Though the use of plastic has to comfort our living style, the lack of proper management has created … Read more

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis is a liver infection. It is caused by the Hepatitis C virus which is a blood-borne virus. It is a short term illness but it can be asymptomatic until decades after the infection. Chronic Hepatitis C is a serious disease that can result in long term health problems and … Read more

Virology VIVA Question and Answer with mnemonics

Virology VIVA Question and Answer

1) What is the genome present inside the virus? Either DNA or RNA but not both. 2) What is the genome present in Coronavirus? RNA 3) Can we observe virus in general laboratory using a light microscope? No, they are too small whose size ranges from 20-250 nm in size. … Read more

Mycology VIVA Question and Answer

Mycology VIVA Question and Answer

1) What is Mycology? It is the study of fungi which includes yeasts and molds. 2) Fungi is prokaryotic or eukaryotic?  Eukaryotic 3) Example of a unicellular eukaryotic organism? Yeast 4) What are saprophytes? Those organisms which depend on( live on) dead and decaying organism are saprophytes. Example: Fungi 5) … Read more