Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)- Types and Pathways

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Definition The major histocompatibility complex can be defined as a tightly linked cluster of genes whose products play an important role in intercellular recognition and in discrimination between self and non-self. The term ‘histo’ stands for tissue and ‘compatibility’ refers to ‘getting along or agreeable’. On the other hand, the term … Read more Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)- Types and Pathways

Vectors for gene cloning: Plasmids and Bacteriophage

Vectors for gene cloning- Plasmids and Bacteriophage

Vectors for gene cloning: Plasmids and Bacteriophage Image Sources: Wikipedia and Vector Stock In molecular biology, a vector refers to a DNA molecule that transfers genetic material into another cell and the genetic material gets to incorporate in the cell genome and expressed. The foreign DNA carried by the vector is called recombinant DNA. The … Read more Vectors for gene cloning: Plasmids and Bacteriophage

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) It is one of the most important biotechnological tools developed. It refers to a biological technique that helps to produce several copies of DNA outside of any living cell. DNA polymerase is the key enzyme that is present behind the whole process. The enzyme involved in the synthesis of new DNA … Read more Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Candidiasis- Opportunistic Mycoses

Candidiasis- Opportunistic Mycoses

Candidiasis- Opportunistic Mycoses Opportunistic mycoses refer to the infections caused by fungi in hosts with immune-compromised conditions. The fungi involved in the infection are called as opportunistic fungi. The reasons behind this incidence include the overuse of antibiotics, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressive drugs. Candidiasis is an infection of the skin, mucosa, and internal organs. The main … Read more Candidiasis- Opportunistic Mycoses

Virus Classification on the basis of morphology and replication

Virus Classification on the basis of morphology and replication

Virus Classification on the basis of morphology and replication Viruses are a specific group of microorganisms that can replicate only inside of a cell. These are extremely small organisms and visible only under an electron microscope. Viral infections can occur in all types of life forms including plants, animals and other microorganisms (bacteria, archaea). A … Read more Virus Classification on the basis of morphology and replication

Design of a Fermenter

Design of a Fermenter

Design of a Fermenter Fermenter or bioreactor refers to a device that provides all the basic necessities important for biological product extraction. A fermenter contains different devices that help to maintain the environmental factor inside it which in turn leads to the production of biological products. Therefore the main objective of a fermenter is to … Read more Design of a Fermenter

Fungal Structure

Fungal Structure

Fungal Structure Image Source: Department of Biology, University of Miami Structure of fungal hypha Hypha is characterized as a tube-like structure with a rigid wall that contains a moving slug of protoplasm. The length of the hypha varies in different fungal species; however, the diameter ranges from 2 to 30 micrometers and depends on the … Read more Fungal Structure

Environmental Factors affecting Microbial Growth

Environmental Factors affecting Microbial Growth

Environmental Factors affecting Microbial Growth Apart from nutritional components growth of the microbes are also dependent on several environmental factors. These factors play an important role in understanding the growth pattern of a microbe. Apart from that, it is important to understand these factors especially in an industrial set up where a huge amount of … Read more Environmental Factors affecting Microbial Growth

Microbial Growth and Nutrition

Microbial Growth and Nutrition

Microbial Growth and Nutrition Micro and Macro Nutrients The microbial cell is made up of several elements such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron. These are also known as macro elements or macronutrients because these elements are required in high amounts by the microbes. Among these, C, H, O, … Read more Microbial Growth and Nutrition

Sterilization- physical and chemical methods

Sterilization- physical and chemical methods

Microorganisms play an important role in causing infection and contamination. Therefore, Sterilization is an important technique in microbiology which helps to remove or destroy microorganisms from materials or surfaces. Common Definitions Sterilization It is the process by which an article, surface or medium is made free of all microorganisms either in vegetative or spore form. … Read more Sterilization- physical and chemical methods