Glycolysis 10 Steps with Diagram and ATP Formation

Glycolysis 10 Steps with Diagram and ATP Formation

Aerobic respiration refers to the concept of the breakdown of nutrients and the production of energy. Any organism, when consuming any nutritive material, the material goes through a series of biochemical reactions by which simple form of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are produced. After that, these produced compounds are further … Read more

Biopesticides – Bacterial, Viral and Fungal

Biopesticides - Bacterial, Viral and Fungal

Biopesticides Definition Biopesticides can be defined as pesticides that are derived from plants, animals, microbes, or any other biologically available source. Pests or insects are directly involved with crop loss. This problem was first encountered with chemical insecticides. But later on, several adverse effects of chemical insecticides were reported which … Read more

Bacterial Foodborne Illness

Bacterial Foodborne Illness

Foodborne Illness definition Foodborne illness refers to the different diseases and infections caused by microorganisms in food items. This article is mainly focused on the Foodborne illness caused by bacteria. Another term related to foodborne illness is food poisoning. A closer look toward these terms can help to understand different … Read more

Organic Compost and Vermicomposting

Organic Compost and Vermicomposting

Organic Compost definition Organic compost can be defined as a mixture of decayed organic matter which can be added to soil to enhance the growth of different plants. Composting is a process by which heterogeneous organic compounds can go through decomposition and the process occurs due to the presence of … Read more

Mycotoxins- Related to Food Microbiology

Mycotoxins in Foods

Mycotoxins definition Microbial toxins are metabolites produced by a specific microorganism during its growth or life cycle. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several fungi that have a severe impact on human or animal health. The mycotoxins are not only responsible for causing disease but it can also lead to … Read more

Biosafety Level 1, 2, 3 and 4 with comparison

Biosafety Level 1, 2, 3 and 4

Biosafety Level 1, 2, 3 and 4 The handling of pathogenic microorganisms is a highly challenging job due to the chances of contamination. Moreover, pathogens involve in causing the disease to a host. Bio-safety is a concept by which a person can take necessary precautions against infectious agents in a … Read more

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)- Types and Pathways

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Definition The major histocompatibility complex can be defined as a tightly linked cluster of genes whose products play an important role in intercellular recognition and in discrimination between self and non-self. The term ‘histo’ stands for tissue and ‘compatibility’ refers to ‘getting along or agreeable’. On … Read more

Vectors for gene cloning: Plasmids and Bacteriophage

Vectors for gene cloning- Plasmids and Bacteriophage

Vectors for gene cloning: Plasmids and Bacteriophage Image Sources: Wikipedia and Vector Stock In molecular biology, a vector refers to a DNA molecule that transfers genetic material into another cell and the genetic material gets to incorporate in the cell genome and expressed. The foreign DNA carried by the vector … Read more

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) It is one of the most important biotechnological tools developed. It refers to a biological technique that helps to produce several copies of DNA outside of any living cell. DNA polymerase is the key enzyme that is present behind the whole process. The enzyme involved in … Read more

Candidiasis- Opportunistic Mycoses

Candidiasis- Opportunistic Mycoses

Candidiasis- Opportunistic Mycoses Opportunistic mycoses refer to the infections caused by fungi in hosts with immune-compromised conditions. The fungi involved in the infection are called as opportunistic fungi. The reasons behind this incidence include the overuse of antibiotics, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressive drugs. Candidiasis is an infection of the skin, mucosa, … Read more

Design of a Fermenter

Design of a Fermenter

Design of a Fermenter Fermenter or bioreactor refers to a device that provides all the basic necessities important for biological product extraction. A fermenter contains different devices that help to maintain the environmental factor inside it which in turn leads to the production of biological products. Therefore the main objective … Read more

Fungal Structure

Fungal Structure

Fungal Structure Image Source: Department of Biology, University of Miami Structure of fungal hypha Hypha is characterized as a tube-like structure with a rigid wall that contains a moving slug of protoplasm. The length of the hypha varies in different fungal species; however, the diameter ranges from 2 to 30 … Read more

Environmental Factors affecting Microbial Growth

Environmental Factors affecting Microbial Growth

Environmental Factors affecting Microbial Growth Apart from nutritional components growth of the microbes are also dependent on several environmental factors. These factors play an important role in understanding the growth pattern of a microbe. Apart from that, it is important to understand these factors especially in an industrial set up … Read more

Microbial Growth and Nutrition

Microbial Growth and Nutrition

Microbial Growth and Nutrition Micro and Macro Nutrients The microbial cell is made up of several elements such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron. These are also known as macro elements or macronutrients because these elements are required in high amounts by the microbes. … Read more

Sterilization- physical and chemical methods

Sterilization- physical and chemical methods

Microorganisms play an important role in causing infection and contamination. Therefore, Sterilization is an important technique in microbiology which helps to remove or destroy microorganisms from materials or surfaces. Common Definitions Sterilization It is the process by which an article, surface or medium is made free of all microorganisms either … Read more

Solute Transport Mechanisms in Bacteria

Solute Transport Mechanisms in Bacteria

Bacteria require several nutrients for their growth. Structural components such as cell wall and cell membrane restrict the entry of several molecules inside the cell. Therefore, the specific mechanism for nutrient uptake is highly important for the bacterial cell. Image Source: Dr. Kenneth Todar There are different transport mechanisms involved … Read more

Cell Inclusion Bodies

Cell inclusion Bodies

Cell inclusion Bodies Bacterial cell inclusion bodies are otherwise known as granules. Electron microscopic observation reported the presence of both organic and inorganic granules inside the bacterial cell. These granules function as energy storage and these are also involved in reducing osmotic pressure. Some of these granules are found freely … Read more