Arthropoda- 4 types of the respiratory systems

Arthropoda- 4 types of the respiratory systems

We know Arthropoda is the largest phylum, with the highest number of species, and the numbers of individuals are also high. So Arthropods have various types of respiratory systems, some of them described below : 1- Tracheal system 2- Book-lungs 3- Blood-gills 4- Gills 1. Tracheal Respiratory system It is … Read more

Hormones of Insects Body and Metamorphosis in insect

Hormones of Insects Body and Metamorphosis in insect

Hormones of Insects Body Although hormones are mainly present in chordates, yet some hormones are also present in arthropods, that is insects. There are various hormones secreted in insects, which play role in metamorphosis. Some of the hormones are as follows. 1- Brain hormone (BH) The brain has neurosecretory cells. … Read more

Nitrogenous Waste, Urea cycle and Formation of uric acid

Nitrogenous Waste, Urea cycle and Formation of uric acid

Ammonia is a toxic product to the body of animals, thus ammonia is continuously excreted from the body of the animals, in various from depending upon the external environment and physiology of animals. Types of animal-based on excretion of nitrogenous waste There are different types of nitrogenous waste products in … Read more

Economic Importance (Beneficial and Harmful) of Insects

Economic Importance (Beneficial and Harmful) of Insects

Some insects are helpful for agriculture and human welfare but some insects are pests of our crop and some insects have poisonous nature. Here we study some beneficial and harmful importance of insects. A- Beneficial Insects 1- Insects and insects product in the food Insects are an abundant food supply … Read more

Parasitic adaptation of flatworms and diseases caused by flatworm

Parasitic adaptation of flatworms and diseases caused by flatworm

Parasitic adaptation of flatworms Adaption in parasites to survive in the environment of a body of the host is called parasitic adaptation. Mainly flat-worm are parasitic except Turbellaria, so they are adapted for parasitic nature. There are two types of parasitic adaptation to suit their parasitic mode of life. Morphological … Read more

Plant diseases caused by Virus, Bacteria, Mycoplasma, Fungi

Plant diseases caused by Virus, Bacteria, Mycoplasma, Fungi

Although some microbes are beneficial for human welfare, some of them are used for the production of bio-fertilizer, some are useful for industries, yet there are several microorganisms, which are the cause of plant disease. Such as some viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, and fungi can cause several types of disease in … Read more

Protozoa- Locomotory organelles and locomotion methods

Protozoa- Locomotory organelles and locomotion methods

Locomotory Organelles in Protozoa Protozoan shows different verities of locomotory organs, such as pseudopodia, pellicular contractile structure, flagella, cilia.  1. Pseudopodia Pseudopodia are false feet of some Sarcodina protozoans such as Amoeba. Pseudopodia are a temporary structure form by streaming of cytoplasm. It is comprised of ectoplasm and endoplasm both. Pseudopodia … Read more

Types of parasitism in protozoa and human diseases

Types of parasitism in protozoa and human diseases

Types of parasitism in protozoa Before discussing parasitism in protozoa we have to understand the parasite and parasitism. We know that parasites can be defined as organism exists on another organism, parasites are two types one is ectoparasites, living on external body organism and another is endo-parasites, living inside the … Read more

Some common antibiotics and their effects

Some common antibiotics and their effects

Antibiotics Definition When we are ill with a microorganism infection, Docter suggest us to use a particular type of antibiotics, here we have to first know what is antibiotic, and how it works against particular bacteria / microbial infections. Antibiotics are a group of medicine which inhibit the growth of … Read more

Process of Glyoxylate cycle- An Overview and Summary

Process of Glyoxylate cycle

Germinating seeds can convert stored lipids into glucose by a cyclic process known as the glyoxylate cycle. Animal-like vertebrate can’t use the acetate of acetyl CoA into gluconeogenesis. So they can’t convert lipid into glucose via gluconeogenesis, because stored lipid firstly breaks into acetate of acetyl CoA and then enter … Read more

How other carbohydrates enter into glycolytic pathway ?

How other carbohydrates enter into glycolytic pathway

Other carbohydrates such as polysaccharides like dietary starch and glycogen are breakdown their monomer (glucose) during digestion by the action of amylase enzyme, and now glucose absorbed into the cell where it enters glycolysis, but endogenous glycogen, some disaccharides (trehalose, maltose, lactose), and some monosaccharides, which are not the intermediates … Read more

Fate of Pyruvate (Fate of End product of Glycolytic pathway)

Fate of Pyruvate (Fate of End product of Glycolytic pathway)

Pyruvate can enter in lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation in anaerobic condition, in aerobic condition pyruvate loss hydrogen and carbon dioxide and convert into acetyl CoA and enter into the TCA cycle, and also enter into the biosynthetic pathway. In the case of low glucose levels, pyruvate enters into … Read more

Pentose phosphate pathway- An Overview and Summary

Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP)

Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) It is also called a Phosphogluconate Pathway or Hexose Monophosphate pathway. In this pathway, NADP+ is an electron acceptor instead of NAD+. This is taking place in the two-phase- oxidative phase of PPP and non-oxidative phase of PPP. Figure: The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The PPP … Read more

Glycogen metabolism- Breakdown and Biosynthesis of Glycogen

Glycogen metabolism- Breakdown and Biosynthesis of Glycogen

Glycogen is stored polysaccharide in vertebrate and some micro-organism, whereas starch in case of the plant. Glycogen Breakdown Breakdown of glycogen takes place through the three enzymatic reactions, glycogen phosphorylase, glycogen debranching enzyme, and phosphoglucomutase. Three steps are as follow – Glycogen phosphorylase action Glycogen phosphorylase removes glucose residue as … Read more

Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis- An Overview and Summary

Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis

Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis Glycolysis is the process of breakdown of glucose, while gluconeogenesis is the synthesis of glucose. Gluconeogenesis is the opposite of glycolysis with some bypass steps. Glycolysis Glycolysis is a breakdown of one molecule of glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvate through a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, and … Read more

Prenatal detection and screening of genetic disorder

Prenatal detection and screening of genetic disorder

Prenatal detection This is useful for the detection of a genetic disorder and congenital syndrome before the birth of the child. And helpful for a parent to prepare mentally and medically for the baby coming with disability. Techniques used in prenatal detection There are several techniques that can be used … Read more

MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and Spanish flu

Pandemic and epidemic Coronavirus and flu viruses

Viruses with a high mutation rate “that is a reason there are no permanent vaccination against it”. According to Jean and Peter Medawar 1977 virus “simply a piece of bad news wrapped up in protein” (from Bad News Wrapped in Protein: Inside Coronavirus Genome by Jonathan Corum and Carl Zimmer). … Read more

Examples of Single Gene Disorders

Single Gene Disorders

Image Source: A-T Society. About 10,000 or more single-gene disorders have been identified, which affect approximately 1-2% of the total population. Some of these disorders are as follow: Huntington disease The name of the disease is on the name of Dr. George Huntington, who describes this disease in 1872 in … Read more

Bacterial diseases- pathogen, symptom, prevention, treatment

Bacterial diseases

Image Source: Microbiology Society. Some of the bacterial diseases with their name of pathogen, transmission, symptom, treatment, and prevention are as follows: 1- Tuberculosis Pathogen – Microbacterium tuberculosis. Mode of transmission – Transmitted by air. Symptom – Bacteria damage the tissues mainly of the lung, the occurrence of fever, and … Read more