Economic Importance (Beneficial and Harmful) of Insects

Economic Importance (Beneficial and Harmful) of Insects

Some insects are helpful for agriculture and human welfare but some insects are pests of our crop and some insects have poisonous nature. Here we study some beneficial and harmful importance of insects. A- Beneficial Insects 1- Insects and insects product in the food Insects are an abundant food supply for several …

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Parasitic adaptation of flatworms and diseases caused by flatworm

Parasitic adaptation of flatworms and diseases caused by flatworm

Parasitic adaptation of flatworms Adaption in parasites to survive in the environment of a body of the host is called parasitic adaptation. Mainly flat-worm are parasitic except Turbellaria, so they are adapted for parasitic nature. There are two types of parasitic adaptation to suit their parasitic mode of life. Morphological adaptations Morphological …

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Plant diseases caused by Virus, Bacteria, Mycoplasma, Fungi

Plant diseases caused by Virus, Bacteria, Mycoplasma, Fungi

Although some microbes are beneficial for human welfare, some of them are used for the production of bio-fertilizer, some are useful for industries, yet there are several microorganisms, which are the cause of plant disease. Such as some viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, and fungi can cause several types of disease in plants. Some …

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Protozoa- Locomotory organelles and locomotion methods

Protozoa- Locomotory organelles and locomotion methods

Locomotory Organelles in Protozoa Protozoan shows different verities of locomotory organs, such as pseudopodia, pellicular contractile structure, flagella, cilia.  1. Pseudopodia Pseudopodia are false feet of some Sarcodina protozoans such as Amoeba. Pseudopodia are a temporary structure form by streaming of cytoplasm. It is comprised of ectoplasm and endoplasm both. Pseudopodia are four …

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Types of parasitism in protozoa and human diseases

Types of parasitism in protozoa and human diseases

Types of parasitism in protozoa Before discussing parasitism in protozoa we have to understand the parasite and parasitism. We know that parasites can be defined as organism exists on another organism, parasites are two types one is ectoparasites, living on external body organism and another is endo-parasites, living inside the body of …

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Some common antibiotics and their effects

Some common antibiotics and their effects

Antibiotics Definition When we are ill with a microorganism infection, Docter suggest us to use a particular type of antibiotics, here we have to first know what is antibiotic, and how it works against particular bacteria / microbial infections. Antibiotics are a group of medicine which inhibit the growth of microbes/ bacteria …

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Process of Glyoxylate cycle- An Overview and Summary

Process of Glyoxylate cycle

Germinating seeds can convert stored lipids into glucose by a cyclic process known as the glyoxylate cycle. Animal-like vertebrate can’t use the acetate of acetyl CoA into gluconeogenesis. So they can’t convert lipid into glucose via gluconeogenesis, because stored lipid firstly breaks into acetate of acetyl CoA and then enter into gluconeogenesis …

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How other carbohydrates enter into glycolytic pathway ?

How other carbohydrates enter into glycolytic pathway

Other carbohydrates such as polysaccharides like dietary starch and glycogen are breakdown their monomer (glucose) during digestion by the action of amylase enzyme, and now glucose absorbed into the cell where it enters glycolysis, but endogenous glycogen, some disaccharides (trehalose, maltose, lactose), and some monosaccharides, which are not the intermediates of the …

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Fate of Pyruvate (Fate of End product of Glycolytic pathway)

Fate of Pyruvate (Fate of End product of Glycolytic pathway)

Pyruvate can enter in lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation in anaerobic condition, in aerobic condition pyruvate loss hydrogen and carbon dioxide and convert into acetyl CoA and enter into the TCA cycle, and also enter into the biosynthetic pathway. In the case of low glucose levels, pyruvate enters into gluconeogenesis. Figure: …

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Pentose phosphate pathway- An Overview and Summary

Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP)

Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) It is also called a Phosphogluconate Pathway or Hexose Monophosphate pathway. In this pathway, NADP+ is an electron acceptor instead of NAD+. This is taking place in the two-phase- oxidative phase of PPP and non-oxidative phase of PPP. Figure: The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The PPP branches after …

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