Some common antibiotics and their effects

Some common antibiotics and their effects

Antibiotics Definition When we are ill with a microorganism infection, Docter suggest us to use a particular type of antibiotics, here we have to first know what is antibiotic, and how it works against particular bacteria / microbial infections. Antibiotics are a group of medicine which inhibit the growth of microbes/ bacteria …

Read moreSome common antibiotics and their effects

Process of Glyoxylate cycle- An Overview and Summary

Process of Glyoxylate cycle

Germinating seeds can convert stored lipids into glucose by a cyclic process known as the glyoxylate cycle. Animal-like vertebrate can’t use the acetate of acetyl CoA into gluconeogenesis. So they can’t convert lipid into glucose via gluconeogenesis, because stored lipid firstly breaks into acetate of acetyl CoA and then enter into gluconeogenesis …

Read moreProcess of Glyoxylate cycle- An Overview and Summary

How other carbohydrates enter into glycolytic pathway ?

How other carbohydrates enter into glycolytic pathway

Other carbohydrates such as polysaccharides like dietary starch and glycogen are breakdown their monomer (glucose) during digestion by the action of amylase enzyme, and now glucose absorbed into the cell where it enters glycolysis, but endogenous glycogen, some disaccharides (trehalose, maltose, lactose), and some monosaccharides, which are not the intermediates of the …

Read moreHow other carbohydrates enter into glycolytic pathway ?

Fate of Pyruvate (Fate of End product of Glycolytic pathway)

Fate of Pyruvate (Fate of End product of Glycolytic pathway)

Pyruvate can enter in lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation in anaerobic condition, in aerobic condition pyruvate loss hydrogen and carbon dioxide and convert into acetyl CoA and enter into the TCA cycle, and also enter into the biosynthetic pathway. In the case of low glucose levels, pyruvate enters into gluconeogenesis. Figure: …

Read moreFate of Pyruvate (Fate of End product of Glycolytic pathway)

Pentose phosphate pathway- An Overview and Summary

Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP)

Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) It is also called a Phosphogluconate Pathway or Hexose Monophosphate pathway. In this pathway, NADP+ is an electron acceptor instead of NAD+. This is taking place in the two-phase- oxidative phase of PPP and non-oxidative phase of PPP. Figure: The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The PPP branches after …

Read morePentose phosphate pathway- An Overview and Summary

Glycogen metabolism- Breakdown and Biosynthesis of Glycogen

Glycogen metabolism- Breakdown and Biosynthesis of Glycogen

Glycogen is stored polysaccharide in vertebrate and some micro-organism, whereas starch in case of the plant. Glycogen Breakdown Breakdown of glycogen takes place through the three enzymatic reactions, glycogen phosphorylase, glycogen debranching enzyme, and phosphoglucomutase. Three steps are as follow – Glycogen phosphorylase action Glycogen phosphorylase removes glucose residue as alpha-D glucose …

Read moreGlycogen metabolism- Breakdown and Biosynthesis of Glycogen

Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis- An Overview and Summary

Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis

Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis Glycolysis is the process of breakdown of glucose, while gluconeogenesis is the synthesis of glucose. Gluconeogenesis is the opposite of glycolysis with some bypass steps. Glycolysis Glycolysis is a breakdown of one molecule of glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvate through a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, and ATP & …

Read moreGlycolysis and Gluconeogenesis- An Overview and Summary

Prenatal detection and screening of genetic disorder

Prenatal detection and screening of genetic disorder

Prenatal detection This is useful for the detection of a genetic disorder and congenital syndrome before the birth of the child. And helpful for a parent to prepare mentally and medically for the baby coming with disability. Techniques used in prenatal detection There are several techniques that can be used for the …

Read morePrenatal detection and screening of genetic disorder