Vorticella (Bell Animalcule)- An Overview

Vorticella (Bell Animalcule)

Vorticella (L.,vortex=whirl pool) is a microscopic, unicellular eukaryotic ciliate. It occurs as a sessile attached by a stalk to the substratum. Its body is almost bell-shaped or campanulate with a free anterior end surrounded by cilia. The commonest species is Vorticella campanula. Some of the species included in this genus are V. microstoma,  V. picta, V. nebulifera, V. monliata. Systematic position of Vorticella (Bell Animalcule) Phylum: Protozoa Subphylum: Ciliophora Subclass: Peritricha Order: Peritrichida Suborder: Sessilina Family: Vorticellidae Genus: Vorticella Image … Read more

Aurelia (A Jellyfish)- An Overview

Aurelia- A Jellyfish

Aurelia is commonly referred to as jellyfish because it is made of a jelly-like substance. A jellyfish is not true fish which is a vertebrate animal with a backbone. It belongs to the class Scyphozoa of phylum Coelenterata. The most common scyphozoan jellyfish is Aurelia aurita (popularly known as moon jelly). It represents the dominant medusoid stage. Systematic Position Phylum: Coelenterata Class: Scyphozoa Order: Semaeostomae Family: Ulmaridae Genus: Aurelia Species: aurita Image Source: Alexander Vasenin. Habit and Habitat of Aurelia … Read more

Euglena viridis- An overview

Euglena viridis

Euglena viridis (Gr.,eu, true+ glene, eyeball or eye pupil+L., Viridis, green) is a unicellular green organism with an eye-like photoreceptive structure.  It is phytoflagellate as it possesses both chloroplasts as well as flagella. It is autotrophic in sunlight but becomes heterotrophic in dark. Systematic position  Phylum: Protozoa Subphylum: Sarcomastigophora Superclass: Mastigophora Class: Phytomastigophorea Order: Euglenida Genus: Euglena Species: viridis Habits and Habitat of Euglena viridis It is a solitary and free-living freshwater flagellate. It is found in great numbers in … Read more

The Five Study Tips for Pharmacology to Ace Your Grades in Nursing School

The Five Study Tips for Pharmacology to Ace Your Grades in Nursing School

Medical Disclaimer: The information presented on this page is only for academic and study purposes and must not be used for the purpose of treatment. If you are not feeling well, please consult with your physician or doctor. Pharmacology features among science courses, specializing in drugs and how they interact with humans and animals. Now that nursing involves prescribing and administering medications, it is evident that pharmacology is an essential subject that every nurse should cover. Learning a long list … Read more

Strongyloides stercoralis (Parasitic Roundworm)- A Threadworm

Strongyloides stercoralis (Parasitic Roundworm)- A Threadworm

Strongyloides stercoralis is a parasitic roundworm that causes strongyloidiasis. It is commonly called a threadworm in the US. It is the smallest nematode known to cause infection in humans. They are unique among nematode because it has both parasitic and free-living form. Image Source: The Australian Society for Parasitology and CDC. History Strongyloides stercoralis was known as the “military worm”. It was first found by Normand in 1876 in the diarrheic feces of French soldiers in CochinChina and the name was … Read more

Fasciola hepatica- Common liver fluke or Sheep liver fluke

Fasciola hepatica- liver fluke

Fasciola hepatica is also known as a common liver fluke or sheep liver fluke. It causes hepatic fibrosis in ruminants and humans known as Fascioliasis. History and distribution of Fasciola hepatica Fasciola hepatica was the first fluke or trematode that was discovered more than 600 years ago in 1379 by Jehan de Brie. It was named by Linnaeus in 1758. It is the largest and most common liver fluke found in man, however, its primary host is the sheep, and … Read more

Giardia duodenalis (Giardia lamblia or Giardia intestinalis)

Morphology of Giardia duodenalis

Introduction Giardia duodenalis is also known as Giardia lamblia and Giardia intestinalis. It is a flagellated unicellular eukaryotic microorganism that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine. It commonly causes a gastrointestinal condition known as Giardiasis. Classification of Giardia duodenalis There are five species of Giardia, out of that, G. intestinalis infects humans and other mammals. G. duodenalis can further be differentiated into seven genotypes from A to G, out of which genotypes A and B usually infect humans. History and … Read more

Hydra- Reproduction (Budding and Sexual), Regeneration, Immortality

Hydra Reproduction

Hydra reproduces asexually by budding and sexually by the formation of gametes. Asexual reproduction of Hydra by Budding Figure: Hydra Budding. 1. Non-reproducing, 2. Creating a bud, 3. Daughter growing out, 4. Beginning to cleave, 5. Daughter broken off, 6. Daughter clone of the parent. Image Source: A.houghton19 (Wikimedia). Budding is a form of asexual reproduction that results from the outgrowth of a part of a cell or body region, leading to a separation from the original organism into two individuals. Hydra … Read more

Hydra- Locomotion, nutrition, respiration, excretion, nervous system, behaviours

Hydra- Locomotion, nutrition, respiration, excretion, nervous system, behaviours

Locomotion in Hydra Hydras are essentially sessile animals. They live attached by their pedal discs to objects in the water. Brown and green hydras can remain fixed at one spot for a considerable time, but green hydras often move about from place to place by several ingenious devices. They twist about or perform movements to change their location either in response to light or some chemical stimulus or to obtain food. All the movements of hydras are due to contractions … Read more

Hydra- Habit, Habitat, External Morphology, Internal Structures

Hydra- Habit, Habitat, External Morphology, Internal Structures

Hydra are inconspicuous freshwater relatives of corals, sea anemones, and jellyfish that are classified under the phylum Cnidaria, Class Hydrozoa, Order Anthomedusae/Anthoathecata, and Family Hydroidea. It is essentially a sedentary organism living attached to stones, pebbles, and water plants, but can get released from the substratum and swim. The name Hydra was given by scientist Linnaeus because of its special power to regenerate its lost part like Hydre ( a nine-headed dragon serpentine of the Greek mythology). Systematic position Phylum: … Read more