Fasciola hepatica- Common liver fluke or Sheep liver fluke

Fasciola hepatica- liver fluke

Fasciola hepatica is also known as a common liver fluke or sheep liver fluke. It causes hepatic fibrosis in ruminants and humans known as Fascioliasis. History and distribution of Fasciola hepatica Fasciola hepatica was the first fluke or trematode that was discovered more than 600 years ago in 1379 by … Read more

Giardia duodenalis (Giardia lamblia or Giardia intestinalis)

Morphology of Giardia duodenalis

Introduction Giardia duodenalis is also known as Giardia lamblia and Giardia intestinalis. It is a flagellated unicellular eukaryotic microorganism that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine. It commonly causes a gastrointestinal condition known as Giardiasis. Classification of Giardia duodenalis There are five species of Giardia, out of that, G. … Read more

Hydra- Reproduction (Budding and Sexual), Regeneration, Immortality

Hydra Reproduction

Hydra reproduces asexually by budding and sexually by the formation of gametes. Asexual reproduction of Hydra by Budding Figure: Hydra Budding. 1. Non-reproducing, 2. Creating a bud, 3. Daughter growing out, 4. Beginning to cleave, 5. Daughter broken off, 6. Daughter clone of the parent. Image Source: A.houghton19 (Wikimedia). Budding is a … Read more

Hydra- Habit, Habitat, External Morphology, Internal Structures

Hydra- Habit, Habitat, External Morphology, Internal Structures

Hydra are inconspicuous freshwater relatives of corals, sea anemones, and jellyfish that are classified under the phylum Cnidaria, Class Hydrozoa, Order Anthomedusae/Anthoathecata, and Family Hydroidea. It is essentially a sedentary organism living attached to stones, pebbles, and water plants, but can get released from the substratum and swim. The name … Read more

Visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar)- Causes, Lab diagnosis, Treatments

Visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar)

What is Visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar)? Visceral leishmaniasis is sometimes known as systemic leishmaniasis or kala-azar. Kala-azar also is known as black fever or Dumdum fever in Asia. It usually occurs 3 to 6 months after being bitten by a sandfly. It primarily infects the reticuloendothelial system. It damages internal organs, … Read more

Cysticercosis- Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment


What is Cysticercosis? Cysticercosis refers to the tissue infection caused by the metacestode, or larval stage, of Taenia solium. It is acquired by the accidental ingestion of T. solium eggs. It is endemic to many parts of the developing world, including Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. Cysticercosis is the … Read more

Ancylostoma duodenale- An Overview

Ancylostoma duodenale

What is Ancylostoma duodenale? Ancylostoma duodenale is the most dangerous parasitic roundworm, causing serious infection in humans. It is commonly known as Old World hookworm. It is common in the tropical, subtropical, and temperate region of Asia, Africa, Europe, the Pacific Islands, and the Southern States of America. Ancylostoma duodenale … Read more

Plasmodium vivax- Life Cycle in Man and in Mosquito

Life cycle of Plasmodium vivax

What is Plasmodium vivax? Plasmodium vivax is the most common of the human infecting malaria fever parasites. It is an intracellular parasite in man. It lives in the red blood corpuscles and liver cells in man. While extracellular in mosquitoes, living in its alimentary canal and salivary glands. The life … Read more

Wuchereria bancrofti- Habitat, Morphology and Life Cycle

Wuchereria bancrofti- Habitat, Morphology and Life Cycle

Wuchereria bancrofti is a filarial nematode that causes Wuchereriasis or filariasis(commonly called elephantiasis) in human beings. The name of this worm is given Wuchereria bancrofti in honor of the two scientists Wucherer and Bancroft who made a considerable contribution in studying the disease caused by these worms. Image Source: Study … Read more

Taenia solium- Life history ,development and adaptations

Taenia solium- Life history ,development and adaptations

Image Source: Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance (DPDx), CDC. Life history and Development of Taenia solium 1. Copulation and fertilization The life cycle of Taenia solium is digenetic, involving two hosts. But the life cycle of tapeworm is simple and without a free larval stage. Fertilization is preceded by copulation, inserting cirrus … Read more

Leishmania donovani- Habitat, Morphology and Life Cycle

Leishmania donovani Morphology

Systematic position Phylum: Protozoa Subphylum: Sacromastigophora Superclass: Mastigophora Class: Zoomastigophora Order: Kinetoplastida Genus: Leishmania Species: donovani Discovery and Distribution The species of Leishmania donovani was reported simultaneously by Leishmania from London and Donovan from Mardas in (1903) hence the name  Leishmania donovani. L. donovani causes a malaria-like fever-oriental disease in … Read more

Taenia solium- Classification, Habitat, Structure, Body wall

Structure of Taenia solium

Classification of Taenia solium Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Cestoda Subclass Eucestoda Order Taenioidea Genus Taenia Species solium Habits and Habitat of Taenia solium Taenia solium, also known as pork tapeworm, is found worldwide. Thus, its distribution is cosmopolitan. Its adults dwell in man’s small intestine as an internal parasite, i.e., endoparasitic, … Read more

Earthworm- Reproductive System, Copulation, Cocoon formation

Reproductive system of earthworm

Reproductive system of earthworm Earthworms do not reproduce asexually. Reproductive organs are somewhat complicated. The pheretima is monoecious or hermaphrodites having both male and female reproductive organs in the same individual. They cannot fertilize their own eggs because they are protandrous. Cross-fertilization occurs as a rule because of the relative … Read more

Reproductive system of Ascaris lumbricoides

Reproductive system of Ascaris lumbricoides

Reproductive system of Ascaris lumbricoides Only sexual reproduction occurs in Ascaris. Sexes are separate i.e., dioecious in Ascaris and these roundworms also show distinct sexual dimorphism. Males are smaller than the females and they also have a curved tail with pre and post anal papillae, cloaca, and a pair of … Read more