Crown Gall Disease

Crown Gall Disease

Crown Gall Disease It is caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which is a common plant disease (bacterial). The disease mostly affects dicotyledon species such as woody & herbaceous plants. Can be identified by the appearance of tumors of various size & shape at lower stem & main roots of the plant. Tumor cells use plant metabolites to form nutrients for bacterial growth. Crown gall disease affects many commercially important crops such as: Grapes Rice Sugar beet Nut trees rose Many shrubs … Read more

Factors for the establishment of plant diseases

Factors for the establishment of plant diseases

These are the factors for the establishment of plant diseases. Pathogen properties. Properties of the host. Presence/absence of nutritional component. Properties of environment. Image Source: AspenCore, Inc A) Pathogen properties 1. Level of virulence: Pathogen’s ability to infect/damage the host or to infect a resistant gene. 2. Adaptability: The ability of a microbe to grow according to environmental conditions. 3. Dispersal efficiency: Efficient spore dispersal by pathogen or pathogen itself dispersed, by water, air or vector. 4. Survival efficiency: In … Read more

Herbarium: Kinds and Functions

Herbarium Kinds and Functions

Herbarium: Kinds and Functions It is a collection of plant specimens that are pressed, preserved, dead and dried, also arranged in a sequence of classification for future purpose and study. The specimens\sample may be a complete plant or a part of the plant, specimens should be in dried form on a sheet paper. Almost 3000 herbarians available in the world, mostly used by mycologists, plant pathologists, taxonomists, and health scientists. Index herbarium it is a project of the international association … Read more

Plant Transformation Methods

Plant Transformation Methods

Plant Transformation Methods Transformation is defined as the process in which the genetic material of an organism is altered by the integration of new genes into its genome. The transformation is done by using vectors such as plasmids. The importance to produce transgenic plants is to: Improve crop yields. Improvement of varietal traits. transgenic plants have protection against their parasites, pests and harsh weather conditions. History The transformation was the first time applied by British Bacteriologist Frederick Griffith in 1928 … Read more

Plants defense mechanism- structural, histological, chemical

Plants defense mechanism

Plants defense mechanism Plants diseases or phytopathogens affects plants right from the planting stage up to the harvesting and storage of the produce. Consequently, the plants have evolved several different mechanisms by which they defend themselves. These defense mechanisms in plants are termed as “BASAL RESISTANCE”. This term referring to two distinct aspects of plant-pathogen interaction. Constitutive defense. Induced defense. Conditions under which pathogens cause disease in the plant. For the development of the disease in plants, there must be … Read more

Beer production

Beer production

Beer production The process of beer production is known as brewing. Word brewing is derived from “Bieber” its means to drink. Basically beer is produced from all grains but at the industry, level produced only from barley. Types of barley beer Top fermented beer (yeast at the top) Bottom fermented beer (yeast at the bottom) Bottom fermented beer Also known as lager (leger mean to store), during this process clarification and maturation take place. Origin Europe/USA. The yeast used is … Read more

Quorum Sensing in Bacteria

Quorum Sensing

Quorum Sensing in Bacteria Quorum sensing in bacteria Quorum. It is a Latin word that means a group of members carries out an activity legally. Quorum sensing is a mechanism of cell to cell signaling or density sensing in micro-organisms. Characteristics for quorum sensing For the bacteria to use quorum sensing constitutively, they must possess three characteristics: To secrete a signaling molecule, an auto-inducer. Detect the change in concentration of signaling molecules. And to regulate gene transcription as a response. … Read more

Entamoeba histolytica- Morphology, Epidemiology, Life cycle, Pathogenesis, Clinical findings

Entamoeba histolytica

Entamoeba histolytica– Morphology, Epidemiology, Life cycle, Pathogenesis, Clinical findings 500 Million populations are infected over the world. 60-70% population in Pakistan is infected Entamoeba histolytica caused amebic dysentery and liver abscess. Morphology Trophozoites A cyst (egg) Cyst= it is immovable and has disease-causing form. Cyst survives for a long period of time because it is double layered. Trophozite= they are motile and have a small shelf life so they cannot survive outside. Encystment (trophozoite –> cyst) Excystment (cyst –> trophozoite. … Read more

Rust- Plant Fungal Disease

Rust- Plant Fungal Disease

Rust- Plant Fungal Disease Plant diseases caused by pathogenic fungi. Pucciniales (previously also known as Uredinales). Spermagonia Aecia Uredinia Telia Basidia Rusts hosts Apple Pear Wheat Barley Rye Infection area Leaves Petioles Tender shoots Stem Fruits Rusts are named after the reddish rusty looking sori and the disease is usually noticed after rain. The group contains pathogens that have a harmful effect on agriculture, forestry, and horticulture. These fungi have significant concerns and a short number of factors to cultivate agricultural and forestry … Read more

Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) and MMR Vaccine

Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) and MMR Vaccine

Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) and MMR Vaccine The MMR which is comprised of a 3 in 1 vaccine, is one of the recommended childhood immunizations. It protects children against three highly contagious Viruses which are as follows: Measles Mumps Rubella (German Measles) Image Source: NFID and CSC Pharmaceuticals Measles Definition  Measles is “an acute viral infection characterized by a maculopapular rash erupting successively over the neck, Face body and extremities and accompanied by a high fever.” Etiology Measles virus (MeV) … Read more