Plant Transformation Methods

Plant Transformation Methods

Plant Transformation Methods Transformation is defined as the process in which the genetic material of an organism is altered by the integration of new genes into its genome. The transformation is done by using vectors such as plasmids. The importance to produce transgenic plants is to: Improve crop yields. Improvement … Read more

Plants defense mechanism- structural, histological, chemical

Plants defense mechanism

Plants defense mechanism Plants diseases or phytopathogens affects plants right from the planting stage up to the harvesting and storage of the produce. Consequently, the plants have evolved several different mechanisms by which they defend themselves. These defense mechanisms in plants are termed as “BASAL RESISTANCE”. This term referring to … Read more

Beer production

Beer production

Beer production The process of beer production is known as brewing. Word brewing is derived from “Bieber” its means to drink. Basically beer is produced from all grains but at the industry, level produced only from barley. Types of barley beer Top fermented beer (yeast at the top) Bottom fermented … Read more

Quorum Sensing in Bacteria

Quorum Sensing

Quorum Sensing in Bacteria Quorum sensing in bacteria Quorum. It is a Latin word that means a group of members carries out an activity legally. Quorum sensing is a mechanism of cell to cell signaling or density sensing in micro-organisms. Characteristics for quorum sensing For the bacteria to use quorum … Read more

Entamoeba histolytica- Morphology, Epidemiology, Life cycle, Pathogenesis, Clinical findings

Entamoeba histolytica

Entamoeba histolytica– Morphology, Epidemiology, Life cycle, Pathogenesis, Clinical findings 500 Million populations are infected over the world. 60-70% population in Pakistan is infected Entamoeba histolytica caused amebic dysentery and liver abscess. Morphology Trophozoites A cyst (egg) Cyst= it is immovable and has disease-causing form. Cyst survives for a long period … Read more

Rust- Plant Fungal Disease

Rust- Plant Fungal Disease

Rust- Plant Fungal Disease Plant diseases caused by pathogenic fungi. Pucciniales (previously also known as Uredinales). Spermagonia Aecia Uredinia Telia Basidia Rusts hosts Apple Pear Wheat Barley Rye Infection area Leaves Petioles Tender shoots Stem Fruits Rusts are named after the reddish rusty looking sori and the disease is usually noticed after rain. … Read more

Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) and MMR Vaccine

Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) and MMR Vaccine

Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) and MMR Vaccine The MMR which is comprised of a 3 in 1 vaccine, is one of the recommended childhood immunizations. It protects children against three highly contagious Viruses which are as follows: Measles Mumps Rubella (German Measles) Image Source: NFID and CSC Pharmaceuticals Measles Definition … Read more

Fermentation of Vinegar

Fermentation of Vinegar

Fermentation of Vinegar Fermentation is the metabolic process by which organic molecules are converted into acids, gases or alcohol in the absence of oxygen. Types of Fermentation Lactic acid fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation. Read also: Design of a Fermenter (https://thebiologynotes.com/design-of-a-fermenter) Vinegar Vinegar is an aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace chemicals … Read more

Poliovirus and Polio Vaccines

Poliovirus and Polio Vaccines

Poliovirus It is an infectious disease caused by poliovirus which affects the spinal cord and brain stem, it leads to paralysis and even leads to death. Poliovirus is the causative agent of poliomyelitis. Children under 5 years of age are more susceptible to this disease. Reservoir Human. Spread through feces. … Read more

Probiotics and Prebiotics

Probiotics and Prebiotics

PROBIOTICS The term probiotics are derived from Greek. Literally means “for life”. Firstly, observed by Lilly and Stillwell in 1965. Currently defined by WHO and FAO “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bifidobacteria are the most … Read more

Plants used as a biofuel production

Plants used as a biofuel production

Biofuel Biofuel are the fuel that produces by using agricultural crops and other biomass material within a short period of time. Common commercial used biofuel are bioethanol, biodiesel, and bio methanol. Bioethanol made from sugarcane, sugar beet, and algae. Biodiesel is made from vegetable oil, animal fats and algal lipid … Read more

Crown Gall Disease

Crown Gall Disease

Crown Gall Disease It is caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which is a common plant disease (bacterial). The disease mostly affects dicotyledon species such as woody & herbaceous plants. Can be identified by the appearance of tumors of various size & shape at lower stem & main roots of the plant. … Read more

Factors for the establishment of plant diseases

Factors for the establishment of plant diseases

These are the factors for the establishment of plant diseases. Pathogen properties. Properties of the host. Presence/absence of nutritional component. Properties of environment. Image Source: AspenCore, Inc A) Pathogen properties 1. Level of virulence: Pathogen’s ability to infect/damage the host or to infect a resistant gene. 2. Adaptability: The ability … Read more

Herbarium: Kinds and Functions

Herbarium Kinds and Functions

Herbarium: Kinds and Functions It is a collection of plant specimens that are pressed, preserved, dead and dried, also arranged in a sequence of classification for future purpose and study. The specimens\sample may be a complete plant or a part of the plant, specimens should be in dried form on … Read more