Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria with commercial uses

Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria

GRAM NEGATIVE These are the characteristics of Gram-negative bacteria Cytoplasmic content is present means periplasm is present. The much thicker Peptidoglycan layer is present in gram-negative than gram-positive bacteria. The outer membrane of gram-negative contains LPS ( lipopolysaccharides) that contain, core polysaccharides, Lipid- A, and O- Antigen). Porins present in … Read more

Chicken Pox (Varicella-zoster virus)

Chicken Pox (Varicella-zoster virus)

What is chickenpox? Herpes virus (DNA) Primary infection results in varicella (chickenpox) Recurrent infection results in herpes zoster (shingles) Short survival in the environment Image Source: Wikipedia Structure VZV virions are spherical and 180–200 nm in diameter. Their lipid envelope encloses the 100 nm nucleocapsid Nucleocapsid has 162 hexameric and pentameric … Read more

Influenza virus- Structure, Types, Life Cycle

Influenza virus- Structure, Types, Life Cycle

Influenza commonly called a flue is a highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory tract mainly infects humans and animals. Influenza virus belongs to the family: Orthomyxoviridae The annual attack rate of influenza virus is 5-10% in adults and 20-30% in children. Virus Structure Enveloped virus Has helical nucleocapsid  sense … Read more

Direct and Viable Microbial Count Methods

Direct and Viable Microbial Count Methods

Image Source: R-Biopharm AG 1. Direct Counts Counting Chamber Technique: In the direct microscopic count, a counting chamber with a ruled slide is employed. It is constructed in such a manner that the ruled lines define a known volume. The number of bacteria in a small known volume is directly … Read more

Phytohormones (Plant hormones)

Phytohormones (Plant hormones)

Plant Hormones – A compound produced by one part of the plant. Hormones – A compound produced in one area of an organism and has an effect on another area. Image Source: BioNinja Classes of Plant Hormones Major classes of hormones produced by plants and PGPR are: Auxins (IAA) Cytokinins … Read more

Capsule, Flagella, Pili (Fimbriae), Glycocalyx (Slime Layer)

Capsule, Flagella, Pili (Fimbriae), Glycocalyx (Slime Layer)

Capsule, Flagella, Pili (Fimbriae), Glycocalyx (Slime Layer) Capsule The capsule is a gelatinous layer covering the entire bacterium. It is composed of polysaccharide, except in the anthrax bacillus, which has a capsule of polymerized d-glutamic acid. The sugar components of the polysaccharide vary from one species of bacteria to another … Read more

Effect of pathogens on plants

Effect of pathogens on plants

Effect of pathogens on plants What is Pathogen? A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. The term is most often used for the agent that disturb the normal physiology. The main pathogen are the virus, bacteria, and fungi. The physiological … Read more

Methods to control plant nematodes

Methods to control plant nematodes

What are Nematodes? The word nematode is derived from Greek words- Nema meaning “thread” and oids meaning “resembling or forms”. Nematodes are also known by different names such as threadworms, roundworms, eelworms, and nema. Nematodes constitute the largest group of an animal kingdom comprising 80-90% of all multicellular animals. These … Read more

Ethanol Production

Ethanol Production

Introduction Biological process in which sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose) are converted into cellular energy. Ethanol is produced in the result of this process. It is colorless, volatile or flammable liquid. It is widely used as biofuel as well as an alcoholic beverage is increasingly being consumed globally. This is mainly … Read more

Citric Acid Production

Citric Acid Production

Citric Acid Production INTRODUCTION Citric acid is the most important commercial product which is found in almost all plant and animal tissues. The molecular formula of citric acid is C6H8O7, 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propane tricarboxylic acid.  It is widely used organic acid in the field of food (60%) and pharmaceuticals (10%). In 1784 … Read more

Chemical Factor of Mutation

Chemical Factor of Mutation

Chemical Factor of Mutation What is a mutation? Any changes in the DNA gene sequence in such a way as to alter the genetic message carried by that gene sequence. What is mutagen? Any biological, physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA of an organism is … Read more

Cell Transformation (normal cells to cancerous cells)

Cell Transformation (normal cells to cancerous cells)

Cell Transformation (normal cells to cancerous cells) Cell transformation is a process in which the addition of certain malignant characteristics in the cell due to alteration in genetic material. induced by chemicals, carcinogens, radiations, viruses. History In 1901 Hugo de Vries first used the term mutation to describe the sudden … Read more

Biofertilizer- Types and Uses

Biofertilizer- Types and Uses

Biofertilizer- Types and Uses Biofertilizer is a substance which contains living microorganisms which, when applied to seeds, plant surfaces, or soil and promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. Biofertilizers add nutrients through the natural processes of nitrogen fixation, solubilizing phosphorus, and stimulating plant … Read more

Edible Vaccines- Plant Used, Steps, Advantages

Edible Vaccines

Edible Vaccines WHAT IS  VACCINE? The vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity against a particular disease. It contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from a weakened or killed form of microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates … Read more

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) What is HIV? HIV stands for ‘human immunodeficiency virus’. It weakens a person’s immune system by destroying important cells that fight against disease and infection. HIV is a member of the genus Lentivirus, part of the family Retroviridae. It is the causative agent of AIDS.  AIDS … Read more