Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria with commercial uses

Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria

GRAM NEGATIVE These are the characteristics of Gram-negative bacteria Cytoplasmic content is present means periplasm is present. The much thicker Peptidoglycan layer is present in gram-negative than gram-positive bacteria. The outer membrane of gram-negative contains LPS ( lipopolysaccharides) that contain, core polysaccharides, Lipid- A, and O- Antigen). Porins present in the outer membrane, that act … Read more Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria with commercial uses

Chicken Pox (Varicella-zoster virus)

Chicken Pox (Varicella-zoster virus)

What is chickenpox? Herpes virus (DNA) Primary infection results in varicella (chickenpox) Recurrent infection results in herpes zoster (shingles) Short survival in the environment Image Source: Wikipedia Structure VZV virions are spherical and 180–200 nm in diameter. Their lipid envelope encloses the 100 nm nucleocapsid Nucleocapsid has 162 hexameric and pentameric capsomeres arranged in an icosahedral … Read more Chicken Pox (Varicella-zoster virus)

Influenza virus- Structure, Types, Life Cycle

Influenza virus- Structure, Types, Life Cycle

Influenza commonly called a flue is a highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory tract mainly infects humans and animals. Influenza virus belongs to the family: Orthomyxoviridae The annual attack rate of influenza virus is 5-10% in adults and 20-30% in children. Virus Structure Enveloped virus Has helical nucleocapsid  sense segmented single-stranded RNA Viruses are … Read more Influenza virus- Structure, Types, Life Cycle

Direct and Viable Microbial Count Methods

Direct and Viable Microbial Count Methods

Image Source: R-Biopharm AG 1. Direct Counts Counting Chamber Technique: In the direct microscopic count, a counting chamber with a ruled slide is employed. It is constructed in such a manner that the ruled lines define a known volume. The number of bacteria in a small known volume is directly counted microscopically and the number … Read more Direct and Viable Microbial Count Methods

Phytohormones (Plant hormones)

Phytohormones (Plant hormones)

Plant Hormones – A compound produced by one part of the plant. Hormones – A compound produced in one area of an organism and has an effect on another area. Image Source: BioNinja Classes of Plant Hormones Major classes of hormones produced by plants and PGPR are: Auxins (IAA) Cytokinins Gibberellins (GA) Abscisic acid Ethylene … Read more Phytohormones (Plant hormones)

Capsule, Flagella, Pili (Fimbriae), Glycocalyx (Slime Layer)

Capsule, Flagella, Pili (Fimbriae), Glycocalyx (Slime Layer)

Capsule, Flagella, Pili (Fimbriae), Glycocalyx (Slime Layer) Capsule The capsule is a gelatinous layer covering the entire bacterium. It is composed of polysaccharide, except in the anthrax bacillus, which has a capsule of polymerized d-glutamic acid. The sugar components of the polysaccharide vary from one species of bacteria to another and frequently determine the serologic … Read more Capsule, Flagella, Pili (Fimbriae), Glycocalyx (Slime Layer)

Effect of pathogens on plants

Effect of pathogens on plants

Effect of pathogens on plants What is Pathogen? A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. The term is most often used for the agent that disturb the normal physiology. The main pathogen are the virus, bacteria, and fungi. The physiological function includes: Pathogenesis Respiration Permeability … Read more Effect of pathogens on plants

Methods to control plant nematodes

Methods to control plant nematodes

What are Nematodes? The word nematode is derived from Greek words- Nema meaning “thread” and oids meaning “resembling or forms”. Nematodes are also known by different names such as threadworms, roundworms, eelworms, and nema. Nematodes constitute the largest group of an animal kingdom comprising 80-90% of all multicellular animals. These organisms are basically aquatic but … Read more Methods to control plant nematodes

Ethanol Production

Ethanol Production

Introduction Biological process in which sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose) are converted into cellular energy. Ethanol is produced in the result of this process. It is colorless, volatile or flammable liquid. It is widely used as biofuel as well as an alcoholic beverage is increasingly being consumed globally. This is mainly because of the cheap raw … Read more Ethanol Production

Citric Acid Production

Citric Acid Production

Citric Acid Production INTRODUCTION Citric acid is the most important commercial product which is found in almost all plant and animal tissues. The molecular formula of citric acid is C6H8O7, 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propane tricarboxylic acid.  It is widely used organic acid in the field of food (60%) and pharmaceuticals (10%). In 1784 W.SCHEELE’s first time isolated from … Read more Citric Acid Production