Week by week pregnancy (Baby and body development with tips)

Week by week pregnancy

Disclaimer: The information presented on the website is for academic, study, and general information purposes only. The information and tips presented on the website must not be used for the purpose of medical advice or diagnosis or treatment. If you are not feeling well, please consult with your physician or doctor, or qualified health care providers. Pregnancy is a period that begins from the first day of the last menstrual cycle and ends with the birth of the baby. This … Read more

Mucormycosis (The black fungus)- An Overview

Mucormycosis (The black fungus)

What is Mucormycosis? Mucormycosis is an infection caused by several species of filamentous molds belonging to the order Mucorales. The infections usually occur in immunocompromised individuals with one or more underlying conditions. The fungi responsible for these infections are found in different environmental niches like soil, decaying vegetables, bread, and even dust. Some of the risk factors associated with mucormycosis include conditions like uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, bone marrow transplant, neutropenia, trauma, burns, and hematologic disorders. Studies related to mucormycosis have … Read more

Testing for Biological Molecules

Testing for Biological Molecules

Benedict’s test for reducing sugars Definition Benedict’s test is a biochemical test performed to distinguish reducing sugars (monosaccharides and some disaccharides) from non-reducing sugars. Objectives To detect the presence of simple carbohydrates in a solution. To distinguish between reducing and non-reducing sugars. Principle The carbohydrates having a free or potentially free, aldehyde or ketone group can act as a reducing agent. In order to detect the reducing agent, Benedict’s reagent is used. It appears deep blue in color and consists … Read more

Water- Definition, Structure, Characteristics, Properties, Functions

Water- Definition, Structure, Characteristics, Properties, Functions

Water Definition Water is an inorganic liquid chemical that is colorless, odorless, tasteless that makes up most of the Earth’s hydrosphere and the fluids in the body of all living beings. Water is an extremely important component for the existence of life as it is vital for all biological processes. It doesn’t, however, have any calorific value or nutritional value. Water is in a liquid state at standard atmospheric temperature and pressure. It occupies 71% of the total land on … Read more

Carbohydrates- definition, classification with structure and functions

Carbohydrates- definition, classification with structure and functions

Carbohydrates Definition Carbohydrates are a large group of organic compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen which can be typically broken down into monomers to release energy in living beings. These are the most abundant biomolecules in the living body in terms of mass. Carbohydrates are also known as saccharides since many of those have a relatively small molecular weight with a sweet taste. This might, however, not be true for all carbohydrates. The empirical formula for carbohydrates is Cm(H2O)n, … Read more

Amino acids and Proteins- Definition, Structure, Types, Functions

Amino acids and Proteins

Amino acids and their structure Proteins are macromolecules made up of monomers called amino acids. Amino acids are the building block of all proteins. An amino acid is a simple organic compound consisting of a basic group (-NH2), an acidic group (-COOH), and an organic R group that is unique to each amino acid. The term amino acid is short for alpha-amino carboxylic acid. Each molecule has a central carbon atom, called the α-carbon to which both the groups are … Read more

Lipids- Definition, Structure and Functions, Fatty acids

Lipids and Fatty Acids

What are Lipids? Lipids are a group of diverse macromolecules consisting of fatty acids and their derivatives that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. Lipids consist of fats, oils, hormones, and certain components of membranes that are grouped together because of their hydrophobic interactions. The lipids are essential constituents of the diet because of their high energy value.   These are also essential for the fat-soluble vitamins and the essential fatty acids found with the fat of the natural foodstuffs. … Read more

Enzymes- Definition, Structure, Types, Mode of action, Functions


Enzymes Definition An enzyme is a protein biomolecule that acts as a biocatalyst by regulating the rate of various metabolic reactions without itself being altered in the process. The name ‘enzyme’ literally means ‘in yeast’, and this was referred to denote one of the most important reactions involved in the production of ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide through the agency of an enzyme zymase, present in yeast. Enzymes are biological catalysts that catalyze more than 5000 different biochemical reactions taking … Read more

Factors affecting enzyme action and immobilized enzymes

Factors that affect enzyme action

Factors that affect enzyme action Enzymes are biological catalysts that accelerate the rate of chemical reactions in the biological system of living beings. Like catalysts, enzymes are also affected by a number of factors that regulate enzyme action. These factors are related to the chemical nature of enzymes as enzymes are proteins, and proteins are affected by most of these factors. Some of the factors that affect enzyme action are described below: 1. Temperature Enzymes are thermolabile or heat-sensitive because … Read more

Enzyme Inhibitors- Competitive, Noncompetitive, End-product inhibition

Enzyme Inhibitors and Enzyme Inhibition

What are Enzyme Inhibitors? Inhibitors are compounds that convert the enzymes into inactive substances and thus adversely affect the rate of enzymatically-catalyzed reaction is called an enzyme inhibitor, and the process involved is termed enzyme inhibition. Some enzyme inhibitors are normal body metabolites that inhibit a particular enzyme while other inhibitors may be foreign substances, such as drugs or toxins. The inhibition may be a part of the normal cellular control of a metabolic pathway, a diseased condition, or either … Read more