Gut Microbiome impact on human gastrointestinal tract

Gut Microbiome impact on human gastrointestinal tract

Introduction The microbial community of bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi with their collective genetic material present in the human gastrointestinal tract is known as the gut microbiome. The microbiome has a significant role in food and absorption of minerals, fabrication of vitamins, enzymes, amino acids, short-chain fatty acids, guarding against … Read more

Endotoxin and Exotoxin with its types

Endotoxin and Exotoxin

Toxin manufacturing is the potential of microorganisms known as toxigenesis. It is used by microbes especially by bacteria to induce disease. Bacterial toxins have two types on the basis of their chemical composition called endotoxin and exotoxin. Endotoxin are part of Gram-negative bacteria cell wall and exotoxin are secreted out … Read more

Brain’s Immune system- Microglial cells

Brain’s Immune system- Microglial cells

Introduction The central nervous system (CNS) has a microglial cell as a primary defense mechanism. Microglia originate from primitive macrophages of the yolk sac. In CNS parenchyma microglia contribute 10% of total glial cells population. They are natives of CNS and equally disseminated within the brain and spinal cord. They … Read more

Inflammatory Mediators

Inflammatory Mediators

What is Inflammation? Inflammation is a well-managed constantly changing reaction comprehend by cellular and vascular activities. It comprises of movement of leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, etc.) to the injured site and discharge of stimulators and signaling molecules (histamine, serotonin, oxygen radicals, etc.) Each type of inflammation generated by different mechanisms. … Read more

Nitrogen related common terms with definitions

Nitrogen cycle, Nitrogen as inorganic and organic component

Nitrogen Cycle The nitrogen cycle is a process in which nitrogen converted into different forms, from the environment to soil, and then becomes part of living beings. N2 is a component of the food chain and found in organic and inorganic compounds and it changes to various forms to retain … Read more

Inflammation – definition, types, causes and treatment

Types of inflammation

Inflammation definition Inflammation is a supportive mechanism against tissue damage or infections. It stimulates the immune system to repair injured tissues and defense against diseases from foreign organisms. Sometimes inflammatory reactions lead to self-injury by provoking defensive action against the body’s cells or it may an exaggerated reaction to the … Read more

Aspergillus and Respiratory Infections

Aspergillus and Respiratory Infections

Aspergillus is a common fungus found in our environment. It has several types of the present in different regions of the world. They are extremely tolerant of high osmotic pressure (high salt, sugar concentration). They prefer to grow in an O2 abundant environment on carbon substrates as a mold. Starchy … Read more