Plant Transformation Methods

Plant Transformation Methods

Plant Transformation Methods Transformation is defined as the process in which the genetic material of an organism is altered by the integration of new genes into its genome. The transformation is done by using vectors such as plasmids. The importance to produce transgenic plants is to: Improve crop yields. Improvement of varietal traits. transgenic plants … Read more Plant Transformation Methods

Rice bacterial blight and Citrus canker

Rice bacterial blight and Citrus canker

Rice bacterial blight and Citrus canker According to Julius Kuhn, plant disease is an abnormal change in physiological processes which disturbs the normal activity of plant organs. Significance Plant disease are important due to the economic loss they cause to the grower. The loss occurs in the field during storage at any time between sowing … Read more Rice bacterial blight and Citrus canker

Plants defense mechanism- structural, histological, chemical

Plants defense mechanism

Plants defense mechanism Plants diseases or phytopathogens affects plants right from the planting stage up to the harvesting and storage of the produce. Consequently, the plants have evolved several different mechanisms by which they defend themselves. These defense mechanisms in plants are termed as “BASAL RESISTANCE”. This term referring to two distinct aspects of plant-pathogen … Read more Plants defense mechanism- structural, histological, chemical

Beer production

Beer production

Beer production The process of beer production is known as brewing. Word brewing is derived from “Bieber” its means to drink. Basically beer is produced from all grains but at the industry, level produced only from barley. Types of barley beer Top fermented beer (yeast at the top) Bottom fermented beer (yeast at the bottom) … Read more Beer production

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) It is one of the most important biotechnological tools developed. It refers to a biological technique that helps to produce several copies of DNA outside of any living cell. DNA polymerase is the key enzyme that is present behind the whole process. The enzyme involved in the synthesis of new DNA … Read more Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Vancomycin-resistant bacteria: VRSA and VRE

Vancomycin-resistant bacteria VRSA and VRE

Vancomycin-resistant bacteria: VRSA and VRE What is Vancomycin? Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that is used to treat bacterial infections in the intestinal tract caused by Clostridium difficile and Staphylococcus infections and Enterococcus spp that cause inflammations in the large and small intestines. It can be administered in two ways, orally and intravenously. Oral administration … Read more Vancomycin-resistant bacteria: VRSA and VRE

Quorum Sensing in Bacteria

Quorum Sensing

Quorum Sensing in Bacteria Quorum sensing in bacteria Quorum. It is a Latin word that means a group of members carries out an activity legally. Quorum sensing is a mechanism of cell to cell signaling or density sensing in micro-organisms. Characteristics for quorum sensing For the bacteria to use quorum sensing constitutively, they must possess … Read more Quorum Sensing in Bacteria

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) What is PGPR? Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are the soil bacteria that colonize plant roots. They have the ability to: Reduce the insects and disease damage. Facilitate plant growth directly or indirectly. Decrease the global dependence on hazardous agricultural chemicals. Stimulate plant growth through mobilizing nutrients in the soil. Image Source: Paula … Read more Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)

Physiological overview of nervous system

Physiological overview of nervous system

Physiological overview of nervous system Central Nervous System: Controls most functions of the body and comprises the brain and spinal cord. Image Source: Youtube Sensory part- Sensory Receptors Sensory experiences excite sensory receptors. So the visual receptors in the eyes, auditory receptors in ears, tactile receptors on in body surface, etc are some examples. There are … Read more Physiological overview of nervous system

Superbugs as Global Crisis

Superbugs as Global Crisis

Superbugs microbes that become resistant to the drugs that should destroy and kill them can be bacterial or fungal strains Image Source: Tincture and Business Insider Sources/ Factors of Resistance Natural selection Antibiotic resistance gene “flow” in nature Resistance genes in plasmids transferred from one bacteria to another Resistant microorganisms become predominant in the environment … Read more Superbugs as Global Crisis