Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) & innate immune system

Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs)

Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) The human body has the receptors that can identify the invading microbial pathogens, these receptors are called Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs). PRRs are the major part of the innate immune system, recognizing the pathogens. PRRs can perform their function by recognizing conserved patterns present in microbial molecules, these molecular patterns are … Read more Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) & innate immune system

SARS-CoV-2- Infection, ACE-2 gene, herd immunity, vaccines

SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19

Image created using biorender.com Type of coronavirus strains There are seven strains of coronavirus Human Coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) Human Coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven Corona Virus) Human Coronavirus OC43(HCoV-OC43) Human Coronavirus HKU1 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Related Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 & HCoV-EMC Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, previously known as … Read more SARS-CoV-2- Infection, ACE-2 gene, herd immunity, vaccines

Some common viral disease, symptom, prevention, treatment

Some common viral disease, symptom, prevention, treatment

Some common viral diseases, symptoms, prevention, treatment Image Source: iStockphoto 1- Smallpox Pathogen – Variola poxvirus. Mode of transmission – By air. Symptom – Small pinkish itchy spots appear on the body with fever. Prevention – Vaccination and proper sanitation. 2- Chickenpox Pathogen – Varicella zoster. Mode of transmission – Disease is transmitted by droplets … Read more Some common viral disease, symptom, prevention, treatment

Aspergillus and Respiratory Infections

Aspergillus and Respiratory Infections

Aspergillus is a common fungus found in our environment. It has several types of the present in different regions of the world. They are extremely tolerant of high osmotic pressure (high salt, sugar concentration). They prefer to grow in an O2 abundant environment on carbon substrates as a mold. Starchy food substances regular colonizes by … Read more Aspergillus and Respiratory Infections

Differences between terminologies used in Microbiology

Differences between terminologies used in Microbiology

Differences between terminologies used in Microbiology Bacteroides and Bacteroids Bacteroides = It is a Gram-negative obligate anaerobic bacteria. Bacteroids= It is the morphological form of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria like Rhizobium which is irregular shaped and is present in the root nodules of legumes. Actinomyces and Actinomycetes Actinomyces = It is the genus of Actinomycetes. It … Read more Differences between terminologies used in Microbiology

Biosafety Level 1, 2, 3 and 4 with comparison

Biosafety Level 1, 2, 3 and 4

Biosafety Level 1, 2, 3 and 4 The handling of pathogenic microorganisms is a highly challenging job due to the chances of contamination. Moreover, pathogens involve in causing the disease to a host. Bio-safety is a concept by which a person can take necessary precautions against infectious agents in a laboratory environment. Bio-safety level refers … Read more Biosafety Level 1, 2, 3 and 4 with comparison

Malnutrition in Nepal with 5 major causes of high rate

Malnutrition in Nepal

Malnutrition in Nepal Despite several efforts, the situation of malnutrition in Nepal is alarming. Malnutrition is a serious problem in Nepal and is a major threat to the health of infants, adolescent girls, and pregnant and lactating mothers. According to NDHS (Nepal Demographic and Health Survey) in 2011, 41% of under-five-year-olds are stunted, 29% are … Read more Malnutrition in Nepal with 5 major causes of high rate

Pathogenicity and Clinical manifestation of Salmonella Typhi

Pathogenicity and Clinical manifestation of Salmonella Typhi

Pathogenesis of Salmonella Typhi (Enteric fever/Typhoid fever) Enteric fever is usually caused by strains of Salmonella Typhi & Paratyphi A, B, and C. Enteric fever is generally characterized by infection of reticuloendothelial system & intestinal lymphoid tissue accompanied by sustained fever & bacteremia. The transmission occurs via oral route usually with contaminated foods & water. … Read more Pathogenicity and Clinical manifestation of Salmonella Typhi

Difference between biodegradation and bioremediation

Difference between biodegradation and bioremediation

The key difference between biodegradation and bioremediation is that biodegradation is a natural process that occurs in the environment.  On the other hand, bioremediation is an engineered technique applied by humans to clean the environment. Both processes are governed mainly by the microorganisms. A large number of bacterial and fungal species possess the capability of … Read more Difference between biodegradation and bioremediation

Diabetes and its treatment by 4 FDA Approved Drugs

Diabetes and its treatment by FDA Approved Drugs

Diabetes is a set of condition that occurs due to disruptions in metabolism which is described by high blood sugar level that results from the deficiency of secretion of insulin, action of insulin, or both of the phenomenon is called diabetes [1]. Here in this, I will be discussing diabetes and its treatment by FDA … Read more Diabetes and its treatment by 4 FDA Approved Drugs