Strongyloides stercoralis (Parasitic Roundworm)- A Threadworm

Strongyloides stercoralis (Parasitic Roundworm)- A Threadworm

Strongyloides stercoralis is a parasitic roundworm that causes strongyloidiasis. It is commonly called a threadworm in the US. It is the smallest nematode known to cause infection in humans. They are unique among nematode because it has both parasitic and free-living form. Image Source: The Australian Society for Parasitology and CDC. … Read more

Fasciola hepatica- Common liver fluke or Sheep liver fluke

Fasciola hepatica- liver fluke

Fasciola hepatica is also known as a common liver fluke or sheep liver fluke. It causes hepatic fibrosis in ruminants and humans known as Fascioliasis. History and distribution of Fasciola hepatica Fasciola hepatica was the first fluke or trematode that was discovered more than 600 years ago in 1379 by … Read more

Nitrogenous Waste, Urea cycle and Formation of uric acid

Nitrogenous Waste, Urea cycle and Formation of uric acid

Ammonia is a toxic product to the body of animals, thus ammonia is continuously excreted from the body of the animals, in various from depending upon the external environment and physiology of animals. Types of animal-based on excretion of nitrogenous waste There are different types of nitrogenous waste products in … Read more

Mucormycosis (The black fungus)- An Overview

Mucormycosis (The black fungus)

What is Mucormycosis? Mucormycosis is an infection caused by several species of filamentous molds belonging to the order Mucorales. The infections usually occur in immunocompromised individuals with one or more underlying conditions. The fungi responsible for these infections are found in different environmental niches like soil, decaying vegetables, bread, and … Read more

Cambridge AS & A Level Biology 9700 Syllabus 2022-2024

Cambridge AS & A Level Biology 9700 Syllabus 2022-2024

For examination in June and November 2022, 2023, and 2024. Image Credit: Cambridge Assessment International Education. Candidates for Cambridge International AS Level Biology study the following topics: 1. Cell structure 1.1 The microscope in cell studies 1.2 Cells as the basic units of living organisms cell surface membrane nucleus, nuclear … Read more

Testing for Biological Molecules

Testing for Biological Molecules

Benedict’s test for reducing sugars Definition Benedict’s test is a biochemical test performed to distinguish reducing sugars (monosaccharides and some disaccharides) from non-reducing sugars. Objectives To detect the presence of simple carbohydrates in a solution. To distinguish between reducing and non-reducing sugars. Principle The carbohydrates having a free or potentially … Read more

Lipids- Definition, Structure and Functions, Fatty acids

Lipids and Fatty Acids

What are Lipids? Lipids are a group of diverse macromolecules consisting of fatty acids and their derivatives that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. Lipids consist of fats, oils, hormones, and certain components of membranes that are grouped together because of their hydrophobic interactions. The lipids are essential constituents … Read more

Factors affecting enzyme action and immobilized enzymes

Factors that affect enzyme action

Factors that affect enzyme action Enzymes are biological catalysts that accelerate the rate of chemical reactions in the biological system of living beings. Like catalysts, enzymes are also affected by a number of factors that regulate enzyme action. These factors are related to the chemical nature of enzymes as enzymes … Read more

Enzyme Inhibitors- Competitive, Noncompetitive, End-product inhibition

Enzyme Inhibitors and Enzyme Inhibition

What are Enzyme Inhibitors? Inhibitors are compounds that convert the enzymes into inactive substances and thus adversely affect the rate of enzymatically-catalyzed reaction is called an enzyme inhibitor, and the process involved is termed enzyme inhibition. Some enzyme inhibitors are normal body metabolites that inhibit a particular enzyme while other … Read more

Best AS & A Level Biology Books to Study (From 2022 Exam)

A Level Biology Books for 2022 Exam

Here are some of the best A Level Biology Books that we can study which are useful for examination from 2022. Book Cover page sources: Respective Books Website. Disclaimer: Books cover page, information, and table of contents are only used for educational purposes. If there are any copyright issues regarding the images, … Read more

Mitochondria- Definition, Properties, Structure, Functions

Mitochondria Structure

Mitochondria Properties Mitochondria is the cell organelle which is filamentous and granular structure. It is present in higher plants, animals, and some microorganisms.  It is absent in bacteria but is found in algae, protozoa, and fungi. To carry out the energy metabolism, mitochondria have got the lipoprotein framework.  It consists … Read more

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum- Structure and Functions

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum- Structure and Functions

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) In 1897, Garnier observed the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) with a light microscope. Ergastoplasm was the term coined by him. In 1945 Porter first reported the Endoplasmic Reticulum. It was discovered independently by Porter and Thompson. It is a continuous membrane system. At one end, it connects the … Read more