Biochemistry of Hepatitis A (Biochemical Tests)

Biochemistry of Hepatitis A

What is Hepatitis A Virus? Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a cause of acute liver inflammation or hepatitis. It can cause relapsing signs and symptoms but not a chronic infection. The virus is a 27-nm-diameter non-enveloped RNA virus. It belongs to the family Picornaviridae and the genus Hepatovirus. Viral transmission occurs in a fecal-oral fashion. The … Read more Biochemistry of Hepatitis A (Biochemical Tests)

Mesothelioma and Chances of Getting Mesothelioma

Chances of Getting Mesothelioma

What is Mesothelioma? Mesothelioma is cancer influencing the mesothelial cells which cover most inner organs. There are two main categories of mesothelioma; pleural and peritoneal. Pleural Mesothelioma This is a kind of cancer that begins in the layer that covers the lungs. Despite the fact that it creates in the chest and includes the covering or lining … Read more Mesothelioma and Chances of Getting Mesothelioma

Experimental techniques in Chemistry

Experimental techniques in Chemistry

Analytical Chemistry  It is the science of chemical characterization. What are the major steps for qualitative analysis?  Obtaining a sample for analysis Separation of the desired constituent Measurement and calculation of results Drawing conclusion Image Source: Pexels. Filteration The process used to separate the insoluble particles from the liquid. It can be done by using … Read more Experimental techniques in Chemistry

COVID-19: A Wake-up call for Disease X Preparedness


COVID-19  The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 12th March 2020. This was a few months after the disease was detected in Wuhan, Hubei province of China on December 8th, 2019. The COVID-19 continues to ravage … Read more COVID-19: A Wake-up call for Disease X Preparedness



Dermatophytosis refers to a skin infection caused by fungi. It is commonly known as ringworm due to its appearance on the skin. The infection can affect humans and animals. Moreover, it can spread from animals or other affected humans. The major reason for the infection is poor hygiene conditions. Skin, hair, nails are normally affected … Read more Dermatophytosis

Inflammatory Mediators

Inflammatory Mediators

What is Inflammation? Inflammation is a well-managed constantly changing reaction comprehend by cellular and vascular activities. It comprises of movement of leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, etc.) to the injured site and discharge of stimulators and signaling molecules (histamine, serotonin, oxygen radicals, etc.) Each type of inflammation generated by different mechanisms. Vascular events arouse via injury … Read more Inflammatory Mediators

Biopesticides – Bacterial, Viral and Fungal

Biopesticides - Bacterial, Viral and Fungal

Biopesticides Definition Biopesticides can be defined as pesticides that are derived from plants, animals, microbes, or any other biologically available source. Pests or insects are directly involved with crop loss. This problem was first encountered with chemical insecticides. But later on, several adverse effects of chemical insecticides were reported which makes it mandatory to search … Read more Biopesticides – Bacterial, Viral and Fungal

Prostaglandins and Therapeutic use of Prostaglandins


Actions of Prostaglandins Prostaglandins act by binding to different G-protein coupled receptors that in return activate or inhibit adenylyl cyclase or stimulate phospholipase C. That eventually results in an enhanced formation of diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), the leukotrienes, and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) activate phosphatidylinositol metabolism to perform certain functions. Thus, activation of … Read more Prostaglandins and Therapeutic use of Prostaglandins

Group Selection and Altruism

Group selection

Group selection definition It refers to the tendency of most groups of individuals to control their rate of consumption of resources and rate of breeding to ensure that the group would not become extinct. According to this, individuals in successful groups would not act selfishly. Image Source: Researchgate (David Sloan Wilson). Altruism One of the … Read more Group Selection and Altruism

Bacterial Foodborne Illness

Bacterial Foodborne Illness

Foodborne Illness definition Foodborne illness refers to the different diseases and infections caused by microorganisms in food items. This article is mainly focused on the Foodborne illness caused by bacteria. Another term related to foodborne illness is food poisoning. A closer look toward these terms can help to understand different types of illnesses related to … Read more Bacterial Foodborne Illness