Mucormycosis (The black fungus)- An Overview

Mucormycosis (The black fungus)

What is Mucormycosis? Mucormycosis is an infection caused by several species of filamentous molds belonging to the order Mucorales. The infections usually occur in immunocompromised individuals with one or more underlying conditions. The fungi responsible for these infections are found in different environmental niches like soil, decaying vegetables, bread, and even dust. …

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Giardia duodenalis (Giardia lamblia or Giardia intestinalis)

Morphology of Giardia duodenalis

Introduction Giardia duodenalis is also known as Giardia lamblia and Giardia intestinalis. It is a flagellated unicellular eukaryotic microorganism that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine. It commonly causes a gastrointestinal condition known as Giardiasis. Classification of Giardia duodenalis There are five species of Giardia, out of that, G. intestinalis infects humans …

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MHC Molecules, Antigen Processing and Presentation

MHC Class I and II Pathways

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules characteristics The Major Histocompatibility complex is a genetic locus that encodes the glycoprotein molecules (transplantation antigens) which are responsible for tissue rejection of grafts between genetically unidentical individuals. It is also the molecule that binds the peptide antigens processed by Antigen-presenting Cells and presents them to T-cells, …

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Hydra- Reproduction (Budding and Sexual), Regeneration, Immortality

Hydra Reproduction

Hydra reproduces asexually by budding and sexually by the formation of gametes. Asexual reproduction of Hydra by Budding Figure: Hydra Budding. 1. Non-reproducing, 2. Creating a bud, 3. Daughter growing out, 4. Beginning to cleave, 5. Daughter broken off, 6. Daughter clone of the parent. Image Source: A.houghton19 (Wikimedia). Budding is a form of …

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Antibodies- Definition, Structure, Types, Forms, Functions

Antibodies- Definition, Structure, Types, Forms, Functions

Introduction and History for Antibodies These are protein molecules naturally produced or synthesized by the B-lymphocytes. They are also known as Immunoglobulins. The use of the term antibody defines an Immunoglobulin molecule that has specificity for an epitope of the molecules that make up antigens. Produced and secreted by plasma cells, antibodies …

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Active and Passive Immunity- Definition, Types, Differences

Active and Passive Immunity- Definition, Types, Differences

Immunity Definition Immunity can be defined as the ability of a multicellular organism’s body to protect themselves from foreign agents and infectious agents, by being able to destroy them to prevent further body infections. Immunity to infectious microorganisms can be achieved by active or passive immunization. In each case, immunity can be …

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Hematopoiesis and Cells of the Immune system

Cells of the Immune system

What are the cells of the Immune system? The immune system is made up of different immune organs and tissues located all over the body. The immune organs are categorized based on their functions and there are two main categorize, which include: Primary lymphoid organs provide a development and maturation site for …

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