Antigen-Antibody Interaction- Definition, Stages, Types, Applications

Antigen-Antibody Interaction

What is an Antigen (Ag)? (Anti= against; gen=thing that produces or causes) Any foreign substances which when enter our body sometimes self-elicit a series of immune responses and are precisely called immunogens. Whereas some of them don’t directly elicit an immune response but require the help of some other molecules (carrier proteins) to do so and are called hapten. The immunogens and hapten are collectively called antigens. – They can be proteins, peptides, lipids or, polysaccharides.  – Antibody binding site … Read more

RNA Polymerase- Definition, Properties, Structure, Types, Functions

RNA Polymerase- Definition, Properties, Structure, Types, Functions

RNA Polymerase Definition RNA polymerase is a multi-unit enzyme that synthesis RNA molecules from the DNA molecule during the process of transcription. It is responsible for transcribing the genes encoded in DNA molecules into code-able sequences RNA, which further helps during protein synthesis. RNA polymerase plays a vital role in transcription, where it attaches itself to the promoter regions of DNA and initiates the process of transcription. Furthermore, this enzyme also adds ribonucleotides and grows the chain of RNA by … Read more

List of Microbiology Colleges in Nepal (B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D.)

List of Microbiology Colleges in Nepal

Central Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University (M.Sc. and Ph.D.) Central Department of Microbiology (CDMi) has made the journey of 25 years since its establishment. Eleven years following the launching of the bachelor’s program in Tri-Chandra College, the master’s program was introduced in Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur on 14th November 1990. The commencement of the master’s program in Microbiology at Tribhuvan University was a milestone in producing competent microbiologists within the nation. The department offers Masters’s and Ph. D. Degree in Microbiology. … Read more

Transfer RNA (tRNA)- Definition, Structure, Processing, Types, Functions

Transfer RNA (tRNA)

What is tRNA? Definition of tRNA- Transfer RNA or tRNA is a type of RNA molecule that helps to decode information present in mRNA sequences into specific proteins. tRNA molecule is a carrier of amino acid that brings appropriate amino acid to ribosome based on the codon present in mRNA sequence. tRNA is also known as an adaptor molecule as it translates the codons present in mRNA sequences into amino acids. tRNA is only 70-90 nucleotides in length, making it … Read more

Omicron Variant (B.1.1.529)- SARS-CoV-2 Variant of Concern

Omicron Variant (B.1.1.529)

What is Omicron Variant (B.1.1.529)? Omicron Variant (B.1.1.529) is the SARS-CoV-2 new variant of concern (VOC) first detected in South Africa. It was first reported to WHO on 24th November 2021. The first known confirmed B.1.1.529 infection was from a specimen collected on 9 November 2021. This variant has a lot of mutations which is very concerning. Omicron Variant Characteristics Mutation in Omicron Variant Omicron Variant was spotted in genome-sequencing data from Botswana. There are more than 50 mutation detected … Read more

Messenger RNA (mRNA)- Definition, Structure, Processing, Types, Functions

mRNA- Definition, Properties, Structure, Processing, Types, Functions

Messenger RNA (mRNA) Definition mRNA is also known as messenger RNA, is a type of RNA molecule that carries the code from the DNA in the nucleus to the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm, ribosome. mRNA is the version of the genetic materials that leave the nucleus and move to the cytoplasm where responsible proteins are synthesized. The information in DNA cannot be translated directly to proteins, it must be transcribed into this RNA form, called mRNA that … Read more

DNA Replication- Definition, Enzymes, Steps, Applications

DNA Replication

DNA Replication Definition DNA replication is the process of producing two identical copies of DNA from one original DNA molecule. DNA is made up of millions of nucleotides, which are composed of deoxyribose sugar, with phosphate and a base.  The complementary pairing of these bases keeps the double strands intact. So, to make two copies of one DNA, these hydrogen bonds in between the bases should be broken to begin replication. DNA replication is semi-conservative, meaning that each strand in … Read more

Week by week pregnancy (Baby and body development with tips)

Week by week pregnancy

Disclaimer: The information presented on the website is for academic, study, and general information purposes only. The information and tips presented on the website must not be used for the purpose of medical advice or diagnosis or treatment. If you are not feeling well, please consult with your physician or doctor, or qualified health care providers. Pregnancy is a period that begins from the first day of the last menstrual cycle and ends with the birth of the baby. This … Read more

Childbirth (Labor Process)- Features, Stages, Mechanism

Childbirth (Labor Process)

Image Source: Dare Alla Luce Doula and Medchrome. Labor is a physiologic process during which the fetus, its associated membranes, the umbilical cord, and the placenta are expelled from the uterus. During most of the months of pregnancy, the uterus undergoes periodic episodes of weak and slow rhythmical contractions called Braxton Hicks contractions. Contractions become progressively stronger toward the end of pregnancy; that start stretching the cervix and later force the baby through the birth canal, thereby causing parturition. This … Read more

Class 12 Biology (Botany+Zoology) Syllabus (Nepal) with Study Notes Link

Class 12 Biology (Botany+Zoology) Syllabus (Nepal) with Study Notes Link

Bio. 302 (Class 12 Biology Syllabus with practical and sample project works) Grade 12 – Botany (Theory) (64 teaching hours) Unit 1 – Plant Anatomy (8 teaching hours) 1.1 Plant anatomy: Concept of tissues, types of plant tissues (meristems and permanent tissues), Anatomy of dicot and monocot root, stem and leaf Secondary growth of dicot stem. (8 teaching hours) Unit 2 – Plant Physiology (20 teaching hours) 2.1 Water relation: Introduction and significance of – diffusion, osmosis, and plasmolysis, ascent … Read more